Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 3, Number 4—December 1997

Genetic Polymorphism Among Cryptosporidium parvum Isolates: Evidence of Two Distinct Human Transmission Cycles

Michael M. Peng*, Lihua Xiao†, Amanda R. Freeman†, Michael J. Arrowood†, Ananias A. Escalante†, André C. Weltman‡, Corinne S.L. Ong¶, William R. Mac Kenzie†, Altaf A. Lal†, and Charles B. Beard†
Author affiliations: *The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ‡Pennsylvania Department of Health, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA; and ¶University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada

Main Article

Table 1

Cryptosporidium parvum isolates examined

Isolate Implicated source Host Ref.
Maine,1993 apple cider human 16
Wisconsin, 1993 drinking water human 3
Wisconsin, 1996 drinking water human *
Georgia (day care),1995 person-to-person human *
Georgia (water-park), 1995 recreational water human 17
Florida, 1995 drinking water human 18
British Columbia, 1996 drinking water human 15
Texas, 1996 unknown human *
Pennsylvania, 1997 bovine contact human, calf *

*Reference is this article.

Main Article

  1. Guerrant  RL. Cryptosporidiosis: an emerging, highly infectious threat. Emerg Infect Dis. 1997;3:517. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Colford  JM, Tager  IB, Hirozawa  AM, Lemp  GF, Aragon  T, Petersen  C. Cryptosporidiosis among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144:80716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. MacKenzie  WR, Hoxie  NJ, Proctor  ME, Gradus  MS, Blair  KA, Peterson  DE, A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of Cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1617. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Morgan  UM, Constantine  CC, O'Donoghue  P, Meloni  BP, O'Brien  PA, Thompson  RCA. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans and other animals using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1995;52:55964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carraway  M, Tzipori  S, Widmer  G. Identification of genetic heterogeneity in the Cryptosporidium parvum ribosomal repeat. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996;62:7126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonnin  A, Fourmaux  MN, Dubremetz  JF, Nelson  RG, Gobet  P, Harly  G, Genotyping human and bovine isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a repetitive DNA sequence. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996;137:20711. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Spano  F, Putignani  L, McLauchlin  J, Casemore  DP, Crisanti  A. PCR-RFLP analysis of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene discriminates between C. wrairi and C. parvum, and between C. parvum isolates of human and animal origin. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1997;150:20917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arrowood  MJ, Sterling  CR. Isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and sporozoites using discontinuous sucrose and isopycnic Percoll gradients. J Parasitol. 1987;73:3149. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Arrowood  MJ, Donaldson  K. Improved purification methods for calf-derived Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts using discontinuous sucrose and cesium chloride gradients. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 1996;43:S89. DOIGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim  K, Gooze  L, Petersen  C, Gut  J, Nelson  RG. Isolation, sequence and molecular karyotype analysis of the actin gene of Cryptosporidium parvum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1992;50:10514. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Wisconsin Package [Computer program]. Version 9.0. Madison (WI): Genetics Computer Group; 1996.
  12. Sanger  F, Miklen  S, Coulson  AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:54637. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mead  JR, Arrowood  MJ, Sidwell  RW, Healey  MC. Chronic Cryptosporidium parvum infections in congenitally immunodeficient SCID and nude mice. J Infect Dis. 1991;163:1297304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Arrowood  MJ, Hurd  MR, Mead  JR. A new method for evaluating experimental cryptosporidial parasite loads using immunofluorescent flow cytometry. J Parasitol. 1995;81:4049. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ong  CSL, Pearce  M, Eisler  D, Goh  SH, King  AS, Bowie  WR, An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Waterborne Cryptosporidium American Water Works Association. In press 1997.
  16. Millard  PS, Gensheimer  KF, Addiss  DG, Sosin  DM, Beckett  GA, Houck-Jankoski  A, An outbreak of crytposporidiosis from fresh-pressed apple cider. JAMA. 1994;272:15926. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Beach  MJ, McNeil  M, Arrowood  M, Kreckman  L, Craig  A, Donaldson  K, Cryptosporidium in a water park: largest U.S. recreational waterborne outbreak [abstract]. 45th Annual Epidemic Intelligence Service Conference, Atlanta. 1996.
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis at a day camp—Florida, July-August 1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996;45:4424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Addiss  DG, Mac Kenzie  WR, Hoxie  NJ, Gradus  MS, Blair  KA, Proctor  JE, Epidemiologic features and implications of the Milwaukee cryptosporidiosis outbreak. In: Betts WB, Casemore D, Fricker C, Smith H, Watkins J, editors. Protozoan parasites and water. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Royal Society of Chemistry; 1995. p. 19-25.
  20. Awad-El-Kariem  FM, Robinson  HA, Dyson  DA, Evans  D, Wright  S, Fox  MT, Differentiation between human and animal strains of Cryptosporidium parvum using isoenzyme typing. Parasitology. 1995;110:12932. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Vasquez  JR, Gooze  L, Kim  K, Gut  J, Petersen  C, Nelson  RG. Potential antifolate resistance determinants and genotypic variation in the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene from human and bovine isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1996;79:15365. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Pozio  E, Gomez Morales  MA, Barbieri  FM, La Rosa  G. Cryptosporidium: different behaviour in calves of isolates of human origin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992;86:6368. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hojlyng  N, Molbak  K, Jepsen  S. Cryptosporidiosis in human beings is not primarily a zoonosis. J Infect. 1985;11:2702. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Robson  KJH, Hall  JRS, Davies  LC, Crisanti  A, Hill  AVS, Wellems  TE. Polymorphism of the TRAP gene of Plasmodium falciparum. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1990;242:20516. DOIGoogle Scholar
  25. Muller  HM, Scarselli  E, Crisanti  A. Thrombospondin related anonymous protein (TRAP) of Plasmodium falciparum in parasite-host cell interactions. Parassitologia. 1993;35(suppl):6972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Templeton  TJ, Kaslow  DC. Cloning and cross-species comparison of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) gene from Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium gallinaceum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1997;84:1324. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: December 22, 2010
Page updated: December 22, 2010
Page reviewed: December 22, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.