Volume 5, Number 3—June 1999
Iron Loading and Disease Surveillance
|Excessive intake of iron through intestinal absorption|
|Behavioral and nutritional factors|
|Accidental ingestion of iron tablets|
|Adulteration of processed foods with inorganic iron or blood|
|Excessive consumption of red meats (heme iron)|
|Excessive intake of alcohol (HCl secretion enhanced)|
|Folic acid deficiency|
|Ingestion of ascorbic acid with inorganic iron|
|Use of iron cookware|
|Genetic and physiological factors|
|Asplenia (mechanism unknown)|
|Pancreatic deficiency of bicarbonate ions|
|Porphyria cutanea tarda|
|Regulatory defect in mucosal cells in hemochromatosis|
|Thalassemia, sicklemia, other hemoglobinopathies|
|Intramuscular and intravenous iron saccharate injections in excess|
|Multiple transfusions of whole blood or erythrocytes in excess|
|Exposure to amosite, crocidolite, or tremolite asbestos|
|Exposure to urban air particulates|
|Mining iron ore, welding, grinding steel|
|Painting with iron oxide powder|
|Tobacco smoking (1-2 µg iron inhaled per cigarette pack)|
|Release of body iron from compartments into plasma|
|Efflux of erythrocyte iron in hemolytic diseases|
|Efflux of hepatocyte iron in hepatitis|
|Deficit in iron withholding|
|Lack of dietary amino acids in kwashiorkor or in jejunoileal bypass|
|Decreased activity in acidosis|
|Substitution of bovine milk or milk formula for human milk in nursling nutrition|
|Decreased synthesis in persons with haplotype 2-2 (28)|
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