Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 5, Number 4—August 1999

Potential Biological Weapons Threats

Mark G. Kortepeter and Gerald W. Parker
Author affiliations: U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA

Main Article


Biological agents involved in bioterrorism or biocrimesa

Traditional biological warfare agents Agents associated with biocrimes and bioterrorism
Pathogens Bacillus anthracisb Ascaris suum
Brucella suis Bacillus anthracisb
Coxiella burnetiib Coxiella burnetiib
Francisella tularensis Giardia lamblia
Smallpox HIV
Viral encephalitides Rickettsia prowazekii
Viral hemorrhagic feversb (typhus)
Yersinia pestisb Salmonella Typhimurium
Salmonella typhi
Shigella species
Schistosoma species
Vibrio cholerae
Viral hemorrhagic
fevers (Ebola)b
Yellow fever virus
Yersinia enterocolitica
Yersinia pestisb
Toxins Botulinumb Botulinumb
Ricinb Cholera endotoxin
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B Diphtheria toxin
Snake toxin
Anti-crop agents Rice blast
Rye stem rust
Wheat stem rust

aIncludes agents which were used, acquired, attempted to acquire, involved in a threat of use or an expressed interest in using. Reprinted with permission from Carus WS. Table 6: Biological agents involved. In: Carus WS. Bioterrorism and biocrimes: the illicit use of biological agents in the 20th Century. Working Paper, Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University. August 1998, revised March 1999.
bThese agents appear on both lists.

Main Article

Page created: December 13, 2010
Page updated: December 13, 2010
Page reviewed: December 13, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.