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Volume 5, Number 6—December 1999

Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United States: Surveillance Update, 1979–19961

Rana A. Hajjeh*Comments to Author , Arthur L. Reingold†, Alexis Weil*, Kathleen Shutt*, Anne Schuchat*, and Bradley A. Perkins*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; and †School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA

Main Article


Demographic characteristics, outcome, and proportion of menstrual cases of toxic shock syndrome, United States, 1979–1996

Characteristic 1979-80
(n = 1,392) No. (%)a by years 1981-86
(n = 2,835) 1987-96
(n = 1,069) Total cases
(n = 5,296)
Female 1,365 (98) 2,594 (92) 958 (90) 4,917 (93)
Median age (yrs), (range) 21 (1-70) 22 (1-87) 25 (3d-82) 22 (3d-87)
White race 1,067 (77) 2,564 (90) 967 (90) 4,598 (91)
Menstrual cases 1,264 (91) 2,021 (71) 636 (59) 3,921 (74)
Deaths (Case-fatality ratio [%]) 77 (6) 95 (3.5) 36 (3.5) 208 (4)

aCalculations were done by using as denominator the number of persons for whom the information on the specific characteristic was available.

Main Article

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Main Article

1Presented in part at the European Conference on Toxic Shock Syndrome, Royal Society of Medicine, London, September 1997, and at the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, March 1998. (Arbuthnott J, Furman B, editors. European conference on toxic shock syndrome, 1997. London [UK]: The Royal Society of Medicine Press Limited; 1998.)

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