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Volume 7, Number 2—April 2001
4th Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections

State of the Art

Economic Impact of Antimicrobial Resistance

John E. McGowanComments to Author 
Author affiliation: Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 2

Elements of the economic impact of antimicrobial-drug resistance, by perspective affected

Element Measurementa Perspective affected
Death Costs associated with treatment failure (R) - Costs associated with treatment failure (S) Physician, patient, HCB
Illness Costs associated with pain, suffering, inconvenience (R) - Costs associated with pain, suffering, inconvenience (S) Physician, patient
Care cost Charges for care (R) - Charges for care (S) Patient
Care time Time devoted to care (R) - Time devoted to care (S) Physician, HCB
Length of process (R) - Length of process (S)b Patient, society
Diagnosis costs Costs for diagnosis (R) - Costs for diagnosis (S) HCB
Treatment costs Costs for drugs (additional drugs and treatments, more expensive drugs)(R) - Costs for drugs(S) HCB
Diminished marketability Market for drug use (R) - Market for drug use (S) Drug industry
New markets Market for new drug (S) - New market for new drug (R) (replace current market leader; replace inexpensive drug with more expensive drug; provide new product) Drug industry
Impact on non-treated Increased resistance (R) - Increased resistance (S) Society

aR = extent in patients infected with resistant organism; S = extent in patients infected with susceptible organism; HCB = health-care business.
bCosts associated with lack of routine functions during infection, including loss of work, quality of life for patient (includes both inpatient and outpatient components); for society, reduction of useful function in workforce.

Main Article

Correction: On July 2, 2001 the following correction was made to this article in the second sentence of paragraph 1. The word "billion" replaced "million" in the phrase "...U.S.$4 to $5 million."