Volume 7, Number 4—August 2001
West Nile Virus
West Nile Virus
Crow Deaths as a Sentinel Surveillance System for West Nile Virus in the Northeastern United States, 1999
- Komar N. West Nile viral encephalitis. Rev Sci Tech. 2000;19:166–76.
- Malkinson M, Banet C, Weisman J, Pokamonski S, King R. West Nile fever: recent evidence for inter-continental dispersion of the virus by migratory birds. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Virology; 1999 August 9-13; Sydney, Australia. Sydney: International Union of Microbiological Societies; 1999. p. 56.
- Work TH, Hurlbut HS, Taylor RM. Indigenous wild birds of the Nile Delta as potential West Nile virus circulating reservoirs. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1955;4:872–88.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreak of West Nile-like viral encephalitis--New York, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999;48:845–9.
- Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT, Deubel V, Smith J, Parker M, Steele K, Origin of the West Nile Virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science. 1999;286:2333–7.
- Anderson JF, Andreadis TG, Vossbrinck CR, Tirrell S, Wakem EM, French RA, Isolation of West Nile virus from mosquitoes, crows and a Cooper's hawk in Connecticut. Science. 1999;286:2331–3.
- Jia XY, Briese T, Jordan I, Rambaut A, Chi HC, Mackenzie JS, Genetic analysis of West Nile New York 1999 encephalitis virus. Lancet. 1999;354:1971–2.
- National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count. Available from: URL: http://www.birdsource.org/cbc
- Lanciotti RS, Kerst AJ, Nasci RS, Godsey MS, Mitchell CJ, Savage HM, Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:4066–7.
- Taylor RM, Work TH, Hurlbut HS, Rizk F. A study of the ecology of West Nile virus in Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1956;5:579–620.
- Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, Miller J, O'Leary D, Murray K, Outbreak of West Nile virus infection, New York City area, 1999. N Engl J Med. 2001. In press.
- Steele KE, Linn MJ, Schoepp RJ, Komar N, Geisbert TW, Manduca RM, Pathology of fatal West Nile virus infections in native and exotic birds during the 1999 outbreak in New York City. J Vet Pathol. 2000;37:208–24.
1Ward Stone, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation; Madhu Anand, Rockland County (NY) Department of Health; Annie Fine, Nancy Jeffery, New York City Department of Health; Ada Huang, Christine Falco, Westchester County (NY) Department of Health; Steve Kopian, Nassau County (NY) Department of Health; Clare Bradley, Suffolk County (NY) Department of Health Services; Kate Schmit, Amy Willsey, Yoichiro Hagiwara, Dennis White, Barbara Wallace, Perry Smith, Hwa-Gan Chang, New York State Department of Health; local and county agencies in New Jersey and Connecticut; Eddy Bresnitz, Colin Campbell, New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services; Doug Roscoe, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection; Theodore Andreadis, John Anderson, Charles Vossbrinck, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station; James Hadler, Connecticut Department of Public Health; Herbert Van Kruiningen, Antonio Garmendia, Richard French, University of Connecticut; Jenny Dickson, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection; Lou Sileo, National Wildlife Health Center; and Amy Kerst, Robert Lanciotti, Nicholas A. Panella, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.