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Volume 8, Number 1—January 2002


Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

Ralf Reintjes*Comments to Author , Isuf Dedushaj†, Ardiana Gjini‡, Tine Rikke Jorgensen§, Benvon Cotter¶, Alfons Lieftucht**, Fortunato D’Ancona¶, David T. Dennis††, Michael A. Kosoy, Gjyle Mulliqi-Osmani†, Roland Grunow‡‡, Ariana Kalaveshi†, Luljeta Gashi†, and Isme Humolli†
Author affiliations: *Institute of Public Health North Rhine-Westphalia, Munich, Germany; †Institute of Public Health, Pristina, Kosovo; ‡World Health Organization, Pristina, Kosovo; §World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark; §Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy; ¶#European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training, Paris, France; **PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, United Kingdom; ††Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ‡‡German Reference Laboratory on Tularemia, Munich, Germany;

Main Article

Table 1

Household risk factors for tularemia determined by bivariate matched comparison of 46 case households and 76 control households, Kosovo, October 1999-May 2000

Risk factor ORa 95% CI p-value
Rodent feces in food storage 3.6 1.1-9.8 0.01
Large numbers of field mice near house 2.6 0.6-6.3 0.2
Piped water as water source 2.0 0.1-176.8 0.4
Personal well as water source 1.4 0.3-4.0 0.5
Well protected from rodents 0.3 0.1-1.1 0.04
Eating fresh vegetables 0.2 0.02-0.9 0.02

aOR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval.

Main Article