Author affiliations: *Institut Pasteur, World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Plague, Antananarivo, Madagascar; †Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Robert Picque, Bordeaux, France; ‡Androva Hospital, Mahajanga, Madagascar; §Institut de Recherches pour le Developpement, Antananarivo, Madagascar; ¶Plague National Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Antananarivo, Madagascar;
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