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Volume 9, Number 11—November 2003


Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Transmission and Risk Factors of Contacts, Uganda1

Paolo Francesconi*, Zabulon Yoti†, Silvia Declich*Comments to Author , Paul Awil Onek‡, Massimo Fabiani*, Joseph Olango‡, Roberta Andraghetti*, Pierre E. Rollin§, Cyprian Opira†, Donato Greco*, and Stefania Salmaso*
Author affiliations: *Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; †St. Mary’s Hospital Lacor, Gulu, Uganda; ‡Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda; §Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 3

Univariate analysis of risk factors for Ebola hemorrhagic fever related to patient care and the number of types of direct contact among 83 contacts, Gulu, Uganda, 2000

Risk factors No. cases (%) Crude PPR (95%CI)a p value
Cared for patient

2 (5.0)

Cared only during patient’s early stage
6 (30.0)
6.00 (1.33 to 27.10)

Cared until the patient’s death at hospital the hospital
6 (42.9)
8.57 (1.95 to 37.66)

Cared until the patient’s death at home
6 (66.7)
13.33 (3.20 to 55.59)
<0.001 (for trend)
Number of types of direct contact

No direct contact
1 (16.7)

One type of direct contact
1 (2.9)
0.18 (0.01 to 2.45)

Two types of direct contact
10 (32.3)
1.94 (0.30 to 12.44)

Three types of direct contact 8 (66.7) 4.00 (0.64 to 25.02) <0.001 (for trend)

aPPR, prevalence proportion ratios; CI, confidence interval.

Main Article

1This paper is dedicated to Dr. Matthew Lukwiya, Medical Superintendent of St. Mary’s Hospital Lacor, and the other health staff who contracted and died of Ebola while taking care of hospital patients.