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Volume 9, Number 11—November 2003

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Transmission and Risk Factors of Contacts, Uganda1

Paolo Francesconi*, Zabulon Yoti†, Silvia Declich*Comments to Author , Paul Awil Onek‡, Massimo Fabiani*, Joseph Olango‡, Roberta Andraghetti*, Pierre E. Rollin§, Cyprian Opira†, Donato Greco*, and Stefania Salmaso*
Author affiliations: *Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; †St. Mary’s Hospital Lacor, Gulu, Uganda; ‡Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda; §Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 4

Multivariate analyses on risk factors for Ebola hemorrhagic fever related to direct and indirect transmission among 83 contacts, Gulu, Uganda, 2000

Risk factors Adjusted PPRa 95% CIb p value
Model 1: Direct transmission

Touching patient during illness
0.19 to 13.04
Touching dead body
0.95 to 3.55
Contact with patient fluid
1.73 to 12.29
Model 2: Indirect transmissionc

Sharing meals
1.00 to 2.85
Washing clothes
0.47 to 2.22
Sleeping in the same hut/on the same mat

Sharing only the hut
1.13 to 4.84
Sharing also the mat
1.16 to 7.38
Ritual handwashing during funeral
0.54 to 2.49
Communal meal during funeral 1.50 0.98 to 2.28 0.060

aPPRs, prevalence proportion ratios adjusted for all the variables included in the model.
bCI, confidence intervals.
cModel 2 has been run controlling for the potential confounding effect due to the intensity of direct contacts with a case-patient (less than two types of direct contacts versus two or more types of direct contacts).

Main Article

1This paper is dedicated to Dr. Matthew Lukwiya, Medical Superintendent of St. Mary’s Hospital Lacor, and the other health staff who contracted and died of Ebola while taking care of hospital patients.

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