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Volume 9, Number 12—December 2003


Risk Factors for Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Daniel G. Bausch*1Comments to Author , Matthias Borchert†2, Thomas Grein‡, Cathy Roth‡, Robert Swanepoel§, Modeste L. Libande¶, Antoine Talarmin#3, Eric Bertherat**4, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum¶, Ben Tugume††, Robert Colebunders†, Kader M. Kond采5, Patricia Pirard§§, Loku L. Olinda¶, Guénaël R. Rodier‡, Patricia Campbell¶¶, Oyewale Tomori‡‡, Thomas G. Ksiazek*, and Pierre E. Rollin*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta Georgia, USA; †Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; ‡World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; §National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa; ¶Ministry of Health, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; #Institut Pasteur, Cayenne, French Guiana; **Le Pharo, Marseille, France; ††Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda; ‡‡World Health Organization, AFRO, Harare, Zimbabwe; §§Doctors without Borders, Brussels, Belgium; ¶¶Doctors without Borders, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 1Present address: Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.; 2Present address: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England.; 3Present address: Institut Pasteur, Bangui, Central African Republic.; 4Present address: World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.; 5Present address: World Health Organization, AFRO, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

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Table 1

Demographic characteristics and Marburg immunoglobulin G antibody results of the study population in Durba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1999a

Characteristic All participants
n = 912 (%) IgG antibody positive n = 15 (%) IgG antibody negative n = 897 (%) OR (95% CI) p value
594 (65)
13 (87)
581 (65)
3.5 (0.8 to 15.4)
Mean age, y (range)
31 (14–79)
27 (21–42)
31 (14–79)


347 (38)
13 (87)
334 (37)
11.0 (2.5 to 48.9)
< 0.001
141 (15)
0 (-)
141 (16)
Other/unknown 424 (46) 2 (13) 422 (47) - -

aOdds ratios (OR) and p values are for the comparison between antibody-positive and -negative participants. CI, confidence interval; Ig, immunoglobulin.

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