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Volume 9, Number 2—February 2003


Influence of Role Models and Hospital Design on the Hand Hygiene of Health-Care Workers

Mary G. Lankford*†, Teresa R. Zembower‡, William E. Trick§, Donna M. Hacek*†, Gary A. Noskin*†‡, and Lance R. Peterson*†‡Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Northwestern Prevention Epicenter, Chicago, Illinois, USA; †Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA; ‡Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA; §Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

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Table 1

Definitions used to determine hand-hygiene opportunities, patient contact, and invasive proceduresa

Hand-hygiene opportunities Patient contact Invasive procedures
Patient contact
Contact with patient’s skin
Performance of an invasive procedure
Contact with blood or body fluids
Intravenous or intramuscular injection of a medication
Placement of an intravascular device or urinary catheter
Contact with mucous membranes
Wound care
Visible soiling of hands

Urinary catheterization
Contact with body fluids

Glove removal

Contact with a likely contaminated environmental surface

aPatient contact and invasive procedure are not mutually exclusive categories.

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