Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 9, Number 2—February 2003


Influence of Role Models and Hospital Design on the Hand Hygiene of Health-Care Workers

Mary G. Lankford*†, Teresa R. Zembower‡, William E. Trick§, Donna M. Hacek*†, Gary A. Noskin*†‡, and Lance R. Peterson*†‡Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Northwestern Prevention Epicenter, Chicago, Illinois, USA; †Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA; ‡Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA; §Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 3

Comparison of characteristics and their effect on hand-hygiene compliance, by multivariate analysisa

Variable Odds ratio 
(95% confidence interval) p value
Glove use
3.5 (2.4 to 5.1)
Invasive procedure performed
2.7 (1.4 to 5.1)
Hand hygiene performed on room entry
2.4 (1.2 to 4.5)
Patient contact
2.1 (1.4 to 3.1)
Health-care workers with a higher ranking health-care worker or peer who did not wash hands
0.4 (0.2 to 0.6)
Hospital unitsb

Old hospital, non-ICU
Old hospital, ICU
1.0 (0.6 to 1.8)
New hospital, non-ICU
0.4 (0.2 to 0.7)
New hospital, ICU 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) <0.001

aHospital units grouped as intensive-care unit (ICU) or non-ICU units and by old or new hospital. All variables displayed in the table were included in the final model.

bAll hospital unit groups were compared to the two non-ICUs in the old hospital, i.e., the referent group, which had the lowest sink-to-bed ratios (1:6 and 1:11). All other units had a sink-to-bed ratio of 1:1.

Main Article