Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 9, Number 8—August 2003

Detecting Bioterror Attacks by Screening Blood Donors: A Best-Case Analysis

Edward H. Kaplan*Comments to Author , Christopher A. Patton†, William P. FitzGerald†, and Lawrence M. Wein‡
Author affiliations: *Yale School of Management and Yale Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; †American Red Cross, Arlington, Virginia, USA; ‡Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Incubation periods from infection through symptoms for Centers for Disease Control category A agents

Agent Incubation time (days)
Bacillus anthracis
Clostridium botulinum
Yersinia pestis
Smallpox virus
Francisella tularensis
Hemorrhagic fever viruses 2–21 (Ebola); 5–10 (Marburg)

Source (11).

Main Article

  1. O’Toole  T, Mair  M, Inglesby  TV. Shining light on “Dark Winter.”. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:97283. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Webb  GF, Blaser  MJ. Mailborne transmission of anthrax: modeling and implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:702732. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Kaplan  EH, Craft  DL, Wein  LM. Emergency response to a smallpox attack: the case for mass vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:1093540. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Wein  LM, Craft  DL, Kaplan  EH. Emergency response to an anthrax attack. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:434651. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Broad  WJ. White House debate on smallpox slows plan for wide vaccination. New York Times 2002 Oct. 13; 20.
  6. Obstacles to biodefence. Nature. 2002;419:1. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. De  BK, Bragg  SL, Sanden  GN, Wilson  KE, Diem  LA, Marston  CK, A two-component direct fluorescent-antibody assay for rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:10605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Espy  MJ, Cockerill  FR III, Meyer  RF, Bowen  MD, Poland  GA, Hadfield  TL, Detection of smallpox virus DNA by LightCycler PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:19858. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berdal  BP, Mehl  R, Haaheim  H, Loksa  M, Grunow  R, Burans  J, Field detection of Francisella tularensis. Scand J Infect Dis. 2000;32:28791. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Neergard  L. Scientists work on smallpox medicines. Associated Press Online, June 2 2002. Available from: URL:
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Biological diseases/agents: category A. Atlanta (GA): The Centers; 2003. Available from: URL:\#categoryadiseases
  12. Report on blood collection and transfusion in the United States in 1999. Bethesda (MD): National Blood Data Resource Center; 2000.
  13. Cox  DR. Renewal theory. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.; 1967.
  14. Anderson  RM, May  RM. Infectious diseases of humans: dynamics and control. New York: Oxford University Press; 1991.
  15. Gani  R, Leach  S. Transmission potential of smallpox in contemporary populations. Nature. 2001;414:74851. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: December 22, 2010
Page updated: December 22, 2010
Page reviewed: December 22, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.