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Volume 14, Number 4—April 2008

Volume 14, Number 4—April 2008   PDF Version [PDF - 7.02 MB - 167 pages]

Perspective

  • Bluetongue Epidemiology in the European Union PDF Version [PDF - 270 KB - 6 pages]
    C. Saegerman et al.
        View Abstract

    Bluetongue (BT) is a reportable disease of considerable socioeconomic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Before 1998, BT was considered an exotic disease in Europe. From 1998 through 2005, at least 6 BT virus strains belonging to 5 serotypes (BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-4, BTV-9, and BTV-16) were continuously present in the Mediterranean Basin. Since August 2006, BTV-8 has caused a severe epizootic of BT in northern Europe. The widespread recrudescence and extension of BTV-8 infections in northern Europe during 2007 suggest that requirements for BTV establishment may now be fulfilled in this area. In addition, the radial extension of BTV-8 across Europe increases the risk for an encounter between this serotype and others, particularly those that occur in the Mediterranean Basin, where vector activity continues for more of the year. This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments.

        Cite This Article
    EID Saegerman C, Berkvens D, Mellor PS. Bluetongue Epidemiology in the European Union. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):539-544. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071441
    AMA Saegerman C, Berkvens D, Mellor PS. Bluetongue Epidemiology in the European Union. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):539-544. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071441.
    APA Saegerman, C., Berkvens, D., & Mellor, P. S. (2008). Bluetongue Epidemiology in the European Union. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 539-544. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071441.
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Synopses

  • Potential Use of Antiviral Agents in Polio Eradication PDF Version [PDF - 227 KB - 7 pages]
    A. M. De Palma et al.
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    In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, which aimed to use large-scale vaccination with the oral vaccine to eradicate polio worldwide by the year 2000. Although important progress has been made, polio remains endemic in several countries. Also, the current control measures will likely be inadequate to deal with problems that may arise in the postpolio era. A panel convoked by the National Research Council concluded that the use of antiviral drugs may be essential in the polio eradication strategy. We here report on a comparative study of the antipoliovirus activity of a selection of molecules that have previously been reported to be inhibitors of picornavirus replication and discuss their potential use, alone or in combination, for the treatment or prophylaxis of poliovirus infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID De Palma AM, Pürstinger G, Wimmer E, Patick AK, Andries K, Rombaut B, et al. Potential Use of Antiviral Agents in Polio Eradication. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):545-551. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070439
    AMA De Palma AM, Pürstinger G, Wimmer E, et al. Potential Use of Antiviral Agents in Polio Eradication. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):545-551. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070439.
    APA De Palma, A. M., Pürstinger, G., Wimmer, E., Patick, A. K., Andries, K., Rombaut, B....Neyts, J. (2008). Potential Use of Antiviral Agents in Polio Eradication. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 545-551. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070439.
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Research

  • Determination of Oseltamivir Quality by Colorimetric and Liquid Chromatographic Methods PDF Version [PDF - 203 KB - 5 pages]
    M. D. Green et al.
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    We developed a colorimetric and chromatographic assay for oseltamivir to assess the authenticity of Tamiflu (F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland) because of a growing concern about counterfeit oseltamivir. The colorimetric assay is quantitative and relies on an extractable colored ion-pair complex of oseltamivir with Congo red or bromochlorophenol blue. The reverse-phase chromatographic assay uses an alkaline mobile phase with UV detection. Both methods were evaluated for variability and selectivity and subsequently applied to batches of oseltamivir products acquired through the Internet. The Congo red test showed greater assay sensitivity, linearity, and accuracy. Colorimetric and chromatographic analysis showed all batches of oseltamivir product were within ±15% of the stated amount of active ingredient.

        Cite This Article
    EID Green MD, Nettey H, Wirtz RA. Determination of Oseltamivir Quality by Colorimetric and Liquid Chromatographic Methods. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):552-556. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.061199
    AMA Green MD, Nettey H, Wirtz RA. Determination of Oseltamivir Quality by Colorimetric and Liquid Chromatographic Methods. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):552-556. doi:10.3201/eid1404.061199.
    APA Green, M. D., Nettey, H., & Wirtz, R. A. (2008). Determination of Oseltamivir Quality by Colorimetric and Liquid Chromatographic Methods. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 552-556. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.061199.
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  • Clonal Population of Flucytosine-Resistant Candida tropicalis from Blood Cultures, Paris, France PDF Version [PDF - 230 KB - 9 pages]
    M. Desnos-Ollivier et al.
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    Candida tropicalis is a diploid ascomycetes yeast responsible for 4%–24% of candidemia. Resistance to flucytosine is rarely described for this species but was observed for 45 (35%) of 130 C. tropicalis isolates recovered from blood cultures in the Paris area in a 4-year survey. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that the flucytosine-resistant isolates could represent a subgroup and to determine the relationship between epidemiologic and genomic data. Epidemiologic data and gene sequences were analyzed, and molecular typing was performed. Our results suggest that a clone of flucytosine-resistant isolates, associated with malignancies and a lower mortality than that for other C. tropicalis isolates, is widespread in the Paris area. We propose the analysis of 2 polymorphic microsatellite markers coupled with URA3 sequencing to track the clone.

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    EID Desnos-Ollivier M, Bretagne S, Bernède C, Robert V, Raoux D, Chachaty E, et al. Clonal Population of Flucytosine-Resistant Candida tropicalis from Blood Cultures, Paris, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):557-565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071083
    AMA Desnos-Ollivier M, Bretagne S, Bernède C, et al. Clonal Population of Flucytosine-Resistant Candida tropicalis from Blood Cultures, Paris, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):557-565. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071083.
    APA Desnos-Ollivier, M., Bretagne, S., Bernède, C., Robert, V., Raoux, D., Chachaty, E....Dromer, F. (2008). Clonal Population of Flucytosine-Resistant Candida tropicalis from Blood Cultures, Paris, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 557-565. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071083.
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  • Emericella quadrilineata as Cause of Invasive Aspergillosis PDF Version [PDF - 320 KB - 7 pages]
    P. E. Verweij et al.
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    We noted a cluster of 4 cases of infection or colonization by Emericella spp., identified by sequence-based analysis as E. quadrilineata. Sequence-based analysis of an international collection of 33 Emericella isolates identified 12 as E. nidulans, all 12 of which had previously been identified by morphologic methods as E. nidulans. For 12 isolates classified as E. quadrilineata, only 6 had been previously identified accordingly. E. nidulans was less susceptible than E. quadrilineata to amphotericin B (median MICs 2.5 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively, p<0.05); E. quadrilineata was less susceptible than E. nidulans to caspofungin (median MICs, 1.83 and 0.32 mg/L, respectively, p<0.05). These data indicate that sequence-based identification is more accurate than morphologic examination for identifying Emericella spp. and that correct species demarcation and in vitro susceptibility testing may affect patient management.

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    EID Verweij PE, Varga J, Houbraken J, Rijs AJ, VerduynLunel FM, Blijlevens NM, et al. Emericella quadrilineata as Cause of Invasive Aspergillosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):566-572. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071157
    AMA Verweij PE, Varga J, Houbraken J, et al. Emericella quadrilineata as Cause of Invasive Aspergillosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):566-572. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071157.
    APA Verweij, P. E., Varga, J., Houbraken, J., Rijs, A. J., VerduynLunel, F. M., Blijlevens, N. M....Samson, R. A. (2008). Emericella quadrilineata as Cause of Invasive Aspergillosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 566-572. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071157.
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  • Control Measures Used during Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, Europe PDF Version [PDF - 183 KB - 6 pages]
    A. Timen et al.
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    To assess the response to the reemergence of lymphogranuloma venereum, we conducted a cross-sectional survey by administering a structured questionnaire to representatives from 26 European countries. Responses were received from 18 countries. The ability to respond quickly and the measures used for outbreak detection and control varied. Evidence-based criteria were not consistently used to develop recommendations. We did not develop criteria to determine the effectiveness of the recommendations. The degree of preparedness for an unexpected outbreak, as well as the ability of countries to respond quickly to alerts, varied, which indicates weaknesses in the ability to control an outbreak. More guidance is needed to implement and evaluate control measures used during international outbreaks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Timen A, Hulscher ME, Vos D, van de Laar MJ, Fenton KA, Van Steenbergen JE, et al. Control Measures Used during Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):573-578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.061583
    AMA Timen A, Hulscher ME, Vos D, et al. Control Measures Used during Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):573-578. doi:10.3201/eid1404.061583.
    APA Timen, A., Hulscher, M. E., Vos, D., van de Laar, M. J., Fenton, K. A., Van Steenbergen, J. E....Grol, R. P. (2008). Control Measures Used during Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 573-578. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.061583.
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  • Medscape CME Activity
    β-Herpesviruses in Febrile Children with Cancer
    S. Yee-Guardino et al.
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    We conducted a cross-sectional study of β-herpesviruses in febrile pediatric oncology patients (n = 30), with a reference group of febrile pediatric solid-organ transplant recipients (n = 9). One (3.3%) of 30 cancer patients and 3 (33%) of 9 organ recipients were PCR positive for cytomegalovirus. Four (13%) of 30 cancer patients and 3 (33%) of 9 transplant recipients had human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) DNAemia, which was more common within 6 months of initiation of immune suppression (4 of 16 vs. 0 of 14 cancer patients; p = 0.050). HHV-6A and HHV-7 were not detected. No other cause was identified in children with HHV-6B or cytomegalovirus DNAemia. One HHV-6B–positive cancer patient had febrile disease with concomitant hepatitis. Other HHV-6B–positive children had mild “viral” illnesses, as did a child with primary cytomegalovirus infection. Cytomegalovirus and HHV-6B should be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile disease in children with cancer.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yee-Guardino S, Gowans K, Yen-Lieberman B, Berk P, Kohn D, Wang F, et al. β-Herpesviruses in Febrile Children with Cancer. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):579-585. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070651
    AMA Yee-Guardino S, Gowans K, Yen-Lieberman B, et al. β-Herpesviruses in Febrile Children with Cancer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):579-585. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070651.
    APA Yee-Guardino, S., Gowans, K., Yen-Lieberman, B., Berk, P., Kohn, D., Wang, F....Goldfarb, J. (2008). β-Herpesviruses in Febrile Children with Cancer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 579-585. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070651.
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  • Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection, Rural Egypt PDF Version [PDF - 186 KB - 6 pages]
    S. M. Mbulaiteye et al.
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    To determine whether human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with schistosomal and hepatitis C virus infections in Egypt, we surveyed 965 rural household participants who had been tested for HHV-8 and schistosomal infection (seroprevalence 14.2% and 68.6%, respectively, among those <15 years of age, and 24.2% and 72.8%, respectively, among those ≥15 years of age). Among adults, HHV-8 seropositivity was associated with higher age, lower education, dental treatment, tattoos, >10 lifetime injections, and hepatitis C virus seropositivity. In adjusted analyses, HHV-8 seropositivity was associated with dental treatment among men (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–5.2) and hepatitis C virus seropositivity among women (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4–7.9). HHV-8 association with antischistosomal antibodies was not significant for men (OR 2.1, 95% CI 0.3–16.4), but marginal for women (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.5). Our findings suggest salivary and possible nosocomial HHV-8 transmission in rural Egypt.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mbulaiteye SM, Pfeiffer RM, Dolan B, Tsang VC, Noh JC, Mikhail NN, et al. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection, Rural Egypt. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):586-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070935
    AMA Mbulaiteye SM, Pfeiffer RM, Dolan B, et al. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection, Rural Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):586-591. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070935.
    APA Mbulaiteye, S. M., Pfeiffer, R. M., Dolan, B., Tsang, V. C., Noh, J. C., Mikhail, N. N....Goedert, J. J. (2008). Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection, Rural Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 586-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070935.
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  • Retrospective Analysis of Monkeypox Infection PDF Version [PDF - 390 KB - 8 pages]
    M. E. Dubois and M. K. Slifka
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    Serologic cross-reactivity between orthopoxviruses is a substantial barrier to laboratory diagnosis of specific orthopoxvirus infections and epidemiologic characterization of disease outbreaks. Historically, time-consuming and labor-intensive strategies such as cross-adsorbed neutralization assays, immunofluorescence assays, and hemagglutination-inhibition assays have been used to identify orthopoxvirus infections. We used cross-adsorption to develop a simple and quantitative postadsorption ELISA for distinguishing between monkeypox and vaccinia infections. Despite the difficulty of diagnosing clinically inapparent monkeypox in previously vaccinated persons, this technique exhibited 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for identifying clinically overt monkeypox infection irrespective of vaccination history. We also describe a Western blot technique in which up to 3 diagnostic bands may be used to distinguish between vaccinia and monkeypox infection. The techniques described provide independent diagnostic tests suitable for retrospective analysis of monkeypox outbreaks.

        Cite This Article
    EID Dubois ME, Slifka MK. Retrospective Analysis of Monkeypox Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):592-599. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071044
    AMA Dubois ME, Slifka MK. Retrospective Analysis of Monkeypox Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):592-599. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071044.
    APA Dubois, M. E., & Slifka, M. K. (2008). Retrospective Analysis of Monkeypox Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 592-599. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071044.
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  • Wild Ducks as Long-Distance Vectors of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) PDF Version [PDF - 1.13 MB - 8 pages]
    J. Keawcharoen et al.
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    Wild birds have been implicated in the expansion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) outbreaks across Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Africa (in addition to traditional transmission by infected poultry, contaminated equipment, and people). Such a role would require wild birds to excrete virus in the absence of debilitating disease. By experimentally infecting wild ducks, we found that tufted ducks, Eurasian pochards, and mallards excreted significantly more virus than common teals, Eurasian wigeons, and gadwalls; yet only tufted ducks and, to a lesser degree, pochards became ill or died. These findings suggest that some wild duck species, particularly mallards, can potentially be long-distance vectors of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) and that others, particularly tufted ducks, are more likely to act as sentinels.

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    EID Keawcharoen J, van Riel D, van Amerongen G, Bestebroer TM, Beyer WE, van Lavieren R, et al. Wild Ducks as Long-Distance Vectors of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):600-607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071016
    AMA Keawcharoen J, van Riel D, van Amerongen G, et al. Wild Ducks as Long-Distance Vectors of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):600-607. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071016.
    APA Keawcharoen, J., van Riel, D., van Amerongen, G., Bestebroer, T. M., Beyer, W. E., van Lavieren, R....Kuiken, T. (2008). Wild Ducks as Long-Distance Vectors of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 600-607. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071016.
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  • Rapid Typing of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Strains with Differential ELISA PDF Version [PDF - 474 KB - 9 pages]
    S. Simon et al.
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    The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been transmitted to humans, leading to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Sheep and goats can be experimentally infected by BSE and have been potentially exposed to natural BSE; however, whether BSE can be transmitted to small ruminants is not known. Based on the particular biochemical properties of the abnormal prion protein (PrPsc) associated with BSE, and particularly the increased degradation induced by proteinase K in the N terminal part of PrPsc, we have developed a rapid ELISA designed to distinguish BSE from other scrapie strains. This assay clearly discriminates experimental ovine BSE from other scrapie strains and was used to screen 260 transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)–infected small ruminant samples identified by the French active surveillance network (2002/2003). In this context, this test has helped to identify the first case of natural BSE in a goat and can be used to classify TSE isolates based on the proteinase K sensitivity of PrPsc.

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    EID Simon S, Nugier J, Morel N, Boutal H, Créminon C, Benestad SL, et al. Rapid Typing of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Strains with Differential ELISA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):608-616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071134
    AMA Simon S, Nugier J, Morel N, et al. Rapid Typing of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Strains with Differential ELISA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):608-616. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071134.
    APA Simon, S., Nugier, J., Morel, N., Boutal, H., Créminon, C., Benestad, S. L....Grassi, J. (2008). Rapid Typing of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Strains with Differential ELISA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 608-616. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071134.
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  • Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by 2 Lineages of Dobrava Hantavirus, Russia PDF Version [PDF - 326 KB - 9 pages]
    B. Klempa et al.
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    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is a European hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS); case-fatality rates in Balkan countries are as high as 12%. To determine causative agents, we examined 126 cases of DOBV-associated HFRS in central and southern European Russia. In central Russia (Lipetsk, Voronezh, Orel regions), outbreaks were caused by a DOBV variant (DOBV-Aa) carried by Apodemus agrarius. In southern Russia (Sochi district), where HFRS is endemic, HFRS cases were caused by a new DOBV variant (DOBV-Ap), found in A. ponticus, a novel hantavirus natural host. Both viruses, DOBV-Aa/Lipetsk and DOBV-Ap/Sochi, were isolated through Vero E6 cells, genetically characterized, and used for serotyping of the HFRS patients’ serum. The clinical severity of HFRS caused by DOBV-Aa resembles that of HFRS caused by Puumala virus (mild to moderate); clinical severity of disease caused by DOBV-Ap infections is more often moderate to severe.

        Cite This Article
    EID Klempa B, Tkachenko EA, Dzagurova TK, Yunicheva YV, Morozov VG, Okulova NM, et al. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by 2 Lineages of Dobrava Hantavirus, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):617-625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071310
    AMA Klempa B, Tkachenko EA, Dzagurova TK, et al. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by 2 Lineages of Dobrava Hantavirus, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):617-625. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071310.
    APA Klempa, B., Tkachenko, E. A., Dzagurova, T. K., Yunicheva, Y. V., Morozov, V. G., Okulova, N. M....Kruger, D. H. (2008). Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by 2 Lineages of Dobrava Hantavirus, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 617-625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071310.
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  • Detection and Prevalence Patterns of Group I Coronaviruses in Bats, Northern Germany
    F. Gloza-Rausch et al.
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    We tested 315 bats from 7 different bat species in northern Germany for coronaviruses by reverse transcription–PCR. The overall prevalence was 9.8%. There were 4 lineages of group I coronaviruses in association with 4 different species of verspertilionid bats (Myotis dasycneme, M. daubentonii, Pipistrellus nathusii, P. pygmaeus). The lineages formed a monophyletic clade of bat coronaviruses found in northern Germany. The clade of bat coronaviruses have a sister relationship with a clade of Chinese type I coronaviruses that were also associated with the Myotis genus (M. ricketti). Young age and ongoing lactation, but not sex or existing gravidity, correlated significantly with coronavirus detection. The virus is probably maintained on the population level by amplification and transmission in maternity colonies, rather than being maintained in individual bats.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gloza-Rausch F, Ipsen A, Seebens A, Göttsche M, Panning M, Drexler J, et al. Detection and Prevalence Patterns of Group I Coronaviruses in Bats, Northern Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):626-631. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071439
    AMA Gloza-Rausch F, Ipsen A, Seebens A, et al. Detection and Prevalence Patterns of Group I Coronaviruses in Bats, Northern Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):626-631. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071439.
    APA Gloza-Rausch, F., Ipsen, A., Seebens, A., Göttsche, M., Panning, M., Drexler, J....Park, S. (2008). Detection and Prevalence Patterns of Group I Coronaviruses in Bats, Northern Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 626-631. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071439.
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Dispatches

  • Multiple Sublineages of Influenza A Virus (H5N1), Vietnam, 2005−2007 PDF Version [PDF - 436 KB - 5 pages]
    T. D. Nguyen et al.
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    Phylogenetic analysis of influenza subtype H5N1 viruses isolated from Vietnam during 2005–2007 shows that multiple sublineages are present in Vietnam. Clade 2.3.4 viruses have replaced clade 1 viruses in northern Vietnam, and clade 1 viruses have been detected in southern Vietnam. Reassortment between these 2 sublineages has also occurred.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nguyen TD, Vijaykrishna D, Webster RG, Guan Y, Peiris JM, Smith GJ, et al. Multiple Sublineages of Influenza A Virus (H5N1), Vietnam, 2005−2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):632-636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071343
    AMA Nguyen TD, Vijaykrishna D, Webster RG, et al. Multiple Sublineages of Influenza A Virus (H5N1), Vietnam, 2005−2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):632-636. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071343.
    APA Nguyen, T. D., Vijaykrishna, D., Webster, R. G., Guan, Y., Peiris, J. M., & Smith, G. J. (2008). Multiple Sublineages of Influenza A Virus (H5N1), Vietnam, 2005−2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 632-636. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071343.
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  • Reassortant Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Poultry, Nigeria, 2007 PDF Version [PDF - 251 KB - 4 pages]
    I. Monne et al.
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    Genetic characterization of a selection of influenza virus (H5N1) samples, circulating in 8 Nigerian states over a 39-day period in early 2007, indicates that a new reassortant strain is present in 7 of the 8 states. Our study reports an entirely different influenza virus (H5N1) reassortant becoming predominant and widespread in poultry.

        Cite This Article
    EID Monne I, Joannis TM, Fusaro A, De Benedictis P, Lombin LH, Ularamu H, et al. Reassortant Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Poultry, Nigeria, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):637-640. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071178
    AMA Monne I, Joannis TM, Fusaro A, et al. Reassortant Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Poultry, Nigeria, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):637-640. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071178.
    APA Monne, I., Joannis, T. M., Fusaro, A., De Benedictis, P., Lombin, L. H., Ularamu, H....Capua, I. (2008). Reassortant Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Poultry, Nigeria, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 637-640. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071178.
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  • Neuroinvasion by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis PDF Version [PDF - 236 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Stamm et al.
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    We report the autopsy findings for a 45-year-old man with polyradiculoneuropathy and fatal acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after having Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. M. pneumoniae antigens were demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue, indicating neuroinvasion as an additional pathogenetic mechanism in central neurologic complications of M. pneumoniae infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Stamm B, Moschopulos M, Hungerbuehler H, Guarner J, Genrich GL, Zaki SR, et al. Neuroinvasion by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):641-643. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.061366
    AMA Stamm B, Moschopulos M, Hungerbuehler H, et al. Neuroinvasion by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):641-643. doi:10.3201/eid1404.061366.
    APA Stamm, B., Moschopulos, M., Hungerbuehler, H., Guarner, J., Genrich, G. L., & Zaki, S. R. (2008). Neuroinvasion by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 641-643. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.061366.
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  • Chagas Disease, France PDF Version [PDF - 172 KB - 3 pages]
    F. Lescure et al.
        View Abstract

    Chagas disease (CD) is endemic to Latin America; its prevalence is highest in Bolivia. CD is sometimes seen in the United States and Canada among migrants from Latin America, whereas it is rare in Europe. We report 9 cases of imported CD in France from 2004 to 2006.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lescure F, Canestri A, Melliez H, Jauréguiberry S, Develoux M, Dorent R, et al. Chagas Disease, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):644-649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070489
    AMA Lescure F, Canestri A, Melliez H, et al. Chagas Disease, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):644-649. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070489.
    APA Lescure, F., Canestri, A., Melliez, H., Jauréguiberry, S., Develoux, M., Dorent, R....Pialoux, G. (2008). Chagas Disease, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 644-649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070489.
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  • Human Thelaziasis, Europe PDF Version [PDF - 227 KB - 3 pages]
    D. Otranto and M. Dutto
        View Abstract

    Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm is a nematode transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores in Europe. It has also been reported in the Far East in humans. We report T. callipaeda infection in 4 human patients in Italy and France.

        Cite This Article
    EID Otranto D, Dutto M. Human Thelaziasis, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):647-649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071205
    AMA Otranto D, Dutto M. Human Thelaziasis, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):647-649. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071205.
    APA Otranto, D., & Dutto, M. (2008). Human Thelaziasis, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 647-649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071205.
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  • Rabies Virus in Raccoons, Ohio, 2004 PDF Version [PDF - 355 KB - 3 pages]
    J. C. Henderson et al.
        View Abstract

    In 2004, the raccoon rabies virus variant emerged in Ohio beyond an area where oral rabies vaccine had been distributed to prevent westward spread of this variant. Our genetic investigation indicates that this outbreak may have begun several years before 2004 and may have originated within the vaccination zone.

        Cite This Article
    EID Henderson JC, Biek R, Hanlon CA, O'Dee S, Real LA. Rabies Virus in Raccoons, Ohio, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):650-652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070972
    AMA Henderson JC, Biek R, Hanlon CA, et al. Rabies Virus in Raccoons, Ohio, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):650-652. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070972.
    APA Henderson, J. C., Biek, R., Hanlon, C. A., O'Dee, S., & Real, L. A. (2008). Rabies Virus in Raccoons, Ohio, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 650-652. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070972.
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  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Typing of Bacillus anthracis from Sverdlovsk Tissue PDF Version [PDF - 216 KB - 4 pages]
    R. T. Okinaka et al.
        View Abstract

    A small number of conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP) that define major phylogenetic branches for Bacillus anthracis were used to place a Sverdlovsk patient’s B. anthracis genotype into 1 of 12 subgroups. Reconstruction of the pagA gene also showed a unique SNP that defines a new lineage for B. anthracis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Okinaka RT, Henrie M, Hill KK, Lowery K, Van Ert M, Pearson T, et al. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Typing of Bacillus anthracis from Sverdlovsk Tissue. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):653-656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070984
    AMA Okinaka RT, Henrie M, Hill KK, et al. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Typing of Bacillus anthracis from Sverdlovsk Tissue. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):653-656. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070984.
    APA Okinaka, R. T., Henrie, M., Hill, K. K., Lowery, K., Van Ert, M., Pearson, T....Keim, P. (2008). Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Typing of Bacillus anthracis from Sverdlovsk Tissue. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 653-656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070984.
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  • Human Mycobacterium bovis Infection and Bovine Tuberculosis Outbreak, Michigan, 1994–2007 PDF Version [PDF - 190 KB - 4 pages]
    M. J. Wilkins et al.
        View Abstract

    Mycobacterium bovis is endemic in Michigan’s white-tailed deer and has been circulating since 1994. The strain circulating in deer has remained genotypically consistent and was recently detected in 2 humans. We summarize the investigation of these cases and confirm that recreational exposure to deer is a risk for infection in humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wilkins MJ, Meyerson J, Bartlett PC, Spieldenner SL, Berry DE, Mosher LB, et al. Human Mycobacterium bovis Infection and Bovine Tuberculosis Outbreak, Michigan, 1994–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):657-660. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070408
    AMA Wilkins MJ, Meyerson J, Bartlett PC, et al. Human Mycobacterium bovis Infection and Bovine Tuberculosis Outbreak, Michigan, 1994–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):657-660. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070408.
    APA Wilkins, M. J., Meyerson, J., Bartlett, P. C., Spieldenner, S. L., Berry, D. E., Mosher, L. B....Boulton, M. L. (2008). Human Mycobacterium bovis Infection and Bovine Tuberculosis Outbreak, Michigan, 1994–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 657-660. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070408.
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  • Mycobacterium avium Lymphadenopathy among Children, Sweden PDF Version [PDF - 201 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Thegerström et al.
        View Abstract

    We studied Mycobacterium avium lymphadenopathy in 183 Swedish children (<7 years of age) from 1998 through 2003. Seasonal variation in the frequency of the disease, with a peak in October and a low point in April, suggests cyclic environmental factors. We also found a higher incidence of the disease in children who live close to water.

        Cite This Article
    EID Thegerström J, Romanus V, Friman V, Brudin L, Haemig PD, Olsen B, et al. Mycobacterium avium Lymphadenopathy among Children, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):661-663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.060570
    AMA Thegerström J, Romanus V, Friman V, et al. Mycobacterium avium Lymphadenopathy among Children, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):661-663. doi:10.3201/eid1404.060570.
    APA Thegerström, J., Romanus, V., Friman, V., Brudin, L., Haemig, P. D., & Olsen, B. (2008). Mycobacterium avium Lymphadenopathy among Children, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 661-663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.060570.
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  • Kala-azar Epidemiology and Control, Southern Sudan PDF Version [PDF - 177 KB - 3 pages]
    J. H. Kolaczinski et al.
        View Abstract

    Southern Sudan is one of the areas in eastern Africa most affected by visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), but lack of security and funds has hampered control. Since 2005, the return of stability has opened up new opportunities to expand existing interventions and introduce new ones.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kolaczinski JH, Hope A, Ruiz JA, Rumunu J, Richer M, Seaman J, et al. Kala-azar Epidemiology and Control, Southern Sudan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):664-666. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071099
    AMA Kolaczinski JH, Hope A, Ruiz JA, et al. Kala-azar Epidemiology and Control, Southern Sudan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):664-666. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071099.
    APA Kolaczinski, J. H., Hope, A., Ruiz, J. A., Rumunu, J., Richer, M., & Seaman, J. (2008). Kala-azar Epidemiology and Control, Southern Sudan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 664-666. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071099.
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  • Dengue Virus Type 4, Manaus, Brazil PDF Version [PDF - 182 KB - 3 pages]
    R. M. Pinto de Figueiredo et al.
        View Abstract

    We report dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) in Amazonas, Brazil. This virus was isolated from serum samples of 3 patients treated at a tropical medicine reference center in Manaus. All 3 cases were confirmed by serologic and molecular tests; 1 patient was co-infected with DENV-3 and DENV-4.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pinto de Figueiredo RM, Naveca FG, Bastos Md, Melo Md, Viana Sd, Mourão M, et al. Dengue Virus Type 4, Manaus, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):667-669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071185
    AMA Pinto de Figueiredo RM, Naveca FG, Bastos Md, et al. Dengue Virus Type 4, Manaus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):667-669. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071185.
    APA Pinto de Figueiredo, R. M., Naveca, F. G., Bastos, M. d., Melo, M. d., Viana, S. d., Mourão, M....Farias, I. P. (2008). Dengue Virus Type 4, Manaus, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 667-669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071185.
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Another Dimension

  • The CAT Scan PDF Version [PDF - 130 KB - 1 page]
    R. O. Valdiserri
            Cite This Article
    EID Valdiserri RO. The CAT Scan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071651
    AMA Valdiserri RO. The CAT Scan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):694. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071651.
    APA Valdiserri, R. O. (2008). The CAT Scan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071651.
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Letters

  • Rat-to-Elephant-to-Human Transmission of Cowpox Virus PDF Version [PDF - 173 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Kurth et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Kurth A, Wibbelt G, Gerber H, Petschaelis A, Pauli G, Nitsche A, et al. Rat-to-Elephant-to-Human Transmission of Cowpox Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):670-671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070817
    AMA Kurth A, Wibbelt G, Gerber H, et al. Rat-to-Elephant-to-Human Transmission of Cowpox Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):670-671. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070817.
    APA Kurth, A., Wibbelt, G., Gerber, H., Petschaelis, A., Pauli, G., & Nitsche, A. (2008). Rat-to-Elephant-to-Human Transmission of Cowpox Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 670-671. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070817.
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  • Avian Influenza Knowledge among Medical Students, Iran PDF Version [PDF - 160 KB - 2 pages]
    K. Ghabili et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ghabili K, Shoja MM, Kamran P. Avian Influenza Knowledge among Medical Students, Iran. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):672-673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070296
    AMA Ghabili K, Shoja MM, Kamran P. Avian Influenza Knowledge among Medical Students, Iran. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):672-673. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070296.
    APA Ghabili, K., Shoja, M. M., & Kamran, P. (2008). Avian Influenza Knowledge among Medical Students, Iran. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 672-673. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070296.
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  • Lorraine Strain of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1, France PDF Version [PDF - 206 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Ginevra et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ginevra C, Forey F, Campèse C, Reyrolle M, Che D, Etienne J, et al. Lorraine Strain of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):673-675. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070961
    AMA Ginevra C, Forey F, Campèse C, et al. Lorraine Strain of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):673-675. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070961.
    APA Ginevra, C., Forey, F., Campèse, C., Reyrolle, M., Che, D., Etienne, J....Jarraud, S. (2008). Lorraine Strain of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 673-675. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070961.
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  • Bluetongue in Captive Yaks PDF Version [PDF - 186 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Mauroy et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mauroy A, Guyot H, De Clercq K, Cassart D, Thiry E, Saegerman C, et al. Bluetongue in Captive Yaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):675-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071416
    AMA Mauroy A, Guyot H, De Clercq K, et al. Bluetongue in Captive Yaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):675-676. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071416.
    APA Mauroy, A., Guyot, H., De Clercq, K., Cassart, D., Thiry, E., & Saegerman, C. (2008). Bluetongue in Captive Yaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 675-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071416.
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  • Murine Typhus, Algeria PDF Version [PDF - 176 KB - 3 pages]
    N. Mouffok et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Mouffok N, Parola P, Raoult D. Murine Typhus, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):676-678. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071316
    AMA Mouffok N, Parola P, Raoult D. Murine Typhus, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):676-678. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071316.
    APA Mouffok, N., Parola, P., & Raoult, D. (2008). Murine Typhus, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 676-678. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071316.
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  • Natural Coinfection with 2 Parvovirus Variants in Dog PDF Version [PDF - 142 KB - 2 pages]
    M. J. Vieira et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Vieira MJ, Silva E, Desario C, Decaro N, Carvalheira J, Buonavoglia C, et al. Natural Coinfection with 2 Parvovirus Variants in Dog. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):678-679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071461
    AMA Vieira MJ, Silva E, Desario C, et al. Natural Coinfection with 2 Parvovirus Variants in Dog. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):678-679. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071461.
    APA Vieira, M. J., Silva, E., Desario, C., Decaro, N., Carvalheira, J., Buonavoglia, C....Thompson, G. (2008). Natural Coinfection with 2 Parvovirus Variants in Dog. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 678-679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071461.
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  • WU Polyomavirus Infection in Children, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 151 KB - 2 pages]
    F. Neske et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Neske F, Blessing K, Ullrich F, Pröttel A, Kreth HW, Weissbrich B, et al. WU Polyomavirus Infection in Children, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):680-681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071325
    AMA Neske F, Blessing K, Ullrich F, et al. WU Polyomavirus Infection in Children, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):680-681. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071325.
    APA Neske, F., Blessing, K., Ullrich, F., Pröttel, A., Kreth, H. W., & Weissbrich, B. (2008). WU Polyomavirus Infection in Children, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 680-681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071325.
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  • Hepatitis E, Central African Republic PDF Version [PDF - 219 KB - 3 pages]
    J. M. Escribà et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Escribà JM, Nakoune E, Recio C, Massamba P, Matsika-Claquin MD, Goumba C, et al. Hepatitis E, Central African Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):681-683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070833
    AMA Escribà JM, Nakoune E, Recio C, et al. Hepatitis E, Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):681-683. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070833.
    APA Escribà, J. M., Nakoune, E., Recio, C., Massamba, P., Matsika-Claquin, M. D., Goumba, C....Koffi, B. (2008). Hepatitis E, Central African Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 681-683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070833.
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  • Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae Infection and Retinal Vasculitis PDF Version [PDF - 179 KB - 2 pages]
    J. Caron et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Caron J, Rolain J, Mura F, Guillot B, Raoult D, Bessis D, et al. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae Infection and Retinal Vasculitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):683-684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070859
    AMA Caron J, Rolain J, Mura F, et al. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae Infection and Retinal Vasculitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):683-684. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070859.
    APA Caron, J., Rolain, J., Mura, F., Guillot, B., Raoult, D., & Bessis, D. (2008). Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae Infection and Retinal Vasculitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 683-684. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070859.
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  • Rickettsia felis in Fleas, France PDF Version [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Gilles et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Gilles J, Just FT, Silaghi C, Pradel I, Lengauer H, Hellmann K, et al. Rickettsia felis in Fleas, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):684-686. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071103
    AMA Gilles J, Just FT, Silaghi C, et al. Rickettsia felis in Fleas, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):684-686. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071103.
    APA Gilles, J., Just, F. T., Silaghi, C., Pradel, I., Lengauer, H., Hellmann, K....Pfister, K. (2008). Rickettsia felis in Fleas, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 684-686. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071103.
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  • Novel Nonstructural Protein 4 Genetic Group in Rotavirus of Porcine Origin PDF Version [PDF - 160 KB - 3 pages]
    P. Khamrin et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Khamrin P, Okitsu S, Ushijima H, Maneekarn N. Novel Nonstructural Protein 4 Genetic Group in Rotavirus of Porcine Origin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):686-688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071111
    AMA Khamrin P, Okitsu S, Ushijima H, et al. Novel Nonstructural Protein 4 Genetic Group in Rotavirus of Porcine Origin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):686-688. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071111.
    APA Khamrin, P., Okitsu, S., Ushijima, H., & Maneekarn, N. (2008). Novel Nonstructural Protein 4 Genetic Group in Rotavirus of Porcine Origin. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 686-688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071111.
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  • PorB2/3 Protein Hybrid in Neisseria meningitidis PDF Version [PDF - 137 KB - 2 pages]
    R. Abad et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Abad R, Enríquez R, Salcedo C, Vázquez JA. PorB2/3 Protein Hybrid in Neisseria meningitidis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):688-689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070869
    AMA Abad R, Enríquez R, Salcedo C, et al. PorB2/3 Protein Hybrid in Neisseria meningitidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):688-689. doi:10.3201/eid1404.070869.
    APA Abad, R., Enríquez, R., Salcedo, C., & Vázquez, J. A. (2008). PorB2/3 Protein Hybrid in Neisseria meningitidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 688-689. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.070869.
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  • West Nile Virus in Birds, Argentina PDF Version [PDF - 169 KB - 3 pages]
    L. A. Diaz et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Diaz LA, Komar N, Visintin A, Juri MJ, Stein M, Allende RL, et al. West Nile Virus in Birds, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):689-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071257
    AMA Diaz LA, Komar N, Visintin A, et al. West Nile Virus in Birds, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):689-691. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071257.
    APA Diaz, L. A., Komar, N., Visintin, A., Juri, M. J., Stein, M., Allende, R. L....Contigiani, M. (2008). West Nile Virus in Birds, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 689-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071257.
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  • Clostridium difficile Surveillance Trends, Saxony, Germany PDF Version [PDF - 163 KB - 2 pages]
    F. Burckhardt et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Burckhardt F, Friedrich A, Beier D, Eckmanns T. Clostridium difficile Surveillance Trends, Saxony, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):691-692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071023
    AMA Burckhardt F, Friedrich A, Beier D, et al. Clostridium difficile Surveillance Trends, Saxony, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):691-692. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071023.
    APA Burckhardt, F., Friedrich, A., Beier, D., & Eckmanns, T. (2008). Clostridium difficile Surveillance Trends, Saxony, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 691-692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071023.
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Books and Media

  • Travel Medicine: Tales Behind the Science PDF Version [PDF - 141 KB - 1 page]
    I. D. Carroll
            Cite This Article
    EID Carroll ID. Travel Medicine: Tales Behind the Science. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071595
    AMA Carroll ID. Travel Medicine: Tales Behind the Science. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):693. doi:10.3201/eid1404.071595.
    APA Carroll, I. D. (2008). Travel Medicine: Tales Behind the Science. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 693. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.071595.
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  • Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology PDF Version [PDF - 144 KB - 2 pages]
    J. L. Leibowitz
            Cite This Article
    EID Leibowitz JL. Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):693-694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.080016
    AMA Leibowitz JL. Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):693-694. doi:10.3201/eid1404.080016.
    APA Leibowitz, J. L. (2008). Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 693-694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.080016.
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About the Cover

  • "In Dreams Begin Responsibilities” PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. "In Dreams Begin Responsibilities”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):695-696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.AC1404
    AMA Potter P. "In Dreams Begin Responsibilities”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):695-696. doi:10.3201/eid1404.AC1404.
    APA Potter, P. (2008). "In Dreams Begin Responsibilities”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 695-696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.AC1404.
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Etymologia

Conference Summaries

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  • Erratum: Vol. 14, No. 2
            Cite This Article
    EID Erratum: Vol. 14, No. 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.C11404
    AMA Erratum: Vol. 14, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(4):696. doi:10.3201/eid1404.C11404.
    APA (2008). Erratum: Vol. 14, No. 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 696. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1404.C11404.
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