Figure 6. Sex hormones increase myocarditis in female and male mice by increasing interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in the heart. Susceptible female (A,C) and male (B,D) BALB/c mice underwent gonadectomy (Fem op/Male op) and were compared to sham-operated controls (Fem sham/Male sham) for the level of myocarditis (% inflammation) and cytokines (pg/g) in the heart after CB3 infection. CB3 myocarditis was assessed for (A) female mice and (B) male mice after the operation. Data are represented as the mean ± standard error of the mean. *, p < 0.05.