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Volume 10, Number 11—November 2004

Volume 10, Number 11—November 2004   PDF Version [PDF - 7.46 MB - 175 pages]

THEME ISSUE
ICEID & ICWID 2004

International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases (ICWID)

  • International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, February 27–28, 2004 PDF Version [PDF - 76 KB - 2 pages]
    M. McDonald et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID McDonald M, Anker M, Deal C, Mawle A, O’Connor S, Slaughter L, et al. International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, February 27–28, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1963-1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040612
    AMA McDonald M, Anker M, Deal C, et al. International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, February 27–28, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1963-1964. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040612.
    APA McDonald, M., Anker, M., Deal, C., Mawle, A., O’Connor, S., & Slaughter, L. (2004). International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, February 27–28, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1963-1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040612.
  • Women and Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 118 KB - 3 pages]
    J. L. Gerberding
            Cite This Article
    EID Gerberding JL. Women and Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1965-1967. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040800
    AMA Gerberding JL. Women and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1965-1967. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040800.
    APA Gerberding, J. L. (2004). Women and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1965-1967. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040800.
  • Steps for Preventing Infectious Diseases in Women PDF Version [PDF - 98 KB - 6 pages]
    M. R. Periago et al.
        View Abstract

    Communicable diseases account for approximately 25% of deaths in most Latin American and Caribbean countries; illness from communicable diseases reaches 40% in developing countries. Mainly affected are poor women in rural areas. A medical approach is not sufficient to implement effective infectious disease prevention strategies in women, which would offset these numbers. Health policies must be changed, and social restrictions that circumscribe women need to be eliminated. In the long run, the only solution is to improve women’s socioeconomic status. The following three steps are necessary for developing a prevention strategy: 1) a gender perspective must be incorporated into infectious disease analysis and research to target policies and programs. Data collected must be disaggregated by sex, age, socioeconomic status, education, ethnicity, and geographic location; 2) models must be developed and implemented that address gender inequities in infectious diseases in an integrated manner; and 3) outreach activities must be supported, using information, education, and communication strategies and materials for advocacy and training. Active participation of civil society groups is key to translating the strategy into specific interventions.

        Cite This Article
    EID Periago MR, Fescina R, Ramón-Pardo P. Steps for Preventing Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1968-1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040555
    AMA Periago MR, Fescina R, Ramón-Pardo P. Steps for Preventing Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1968-1973. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040555.
    APA Periago, M. R., Fescina, R., & Ramón-Pardo, P. (2004). Steps for Preventing Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1968-1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040555.
  • Barriers to Infectious Disease Care among Lesbians PDF Version [PDF - 147 KB - 5 pages]
    J. M. Marrazzo
        View Abstract

    Despite the considerable number of women in the United States who identify as lesbian, few data exist that address lesbians’ health needs. The Institute of Medicine emphasized that data on sexually transmitted infections, Pap smear screening, and cervical dysplasia among lesbians were needed to guide clinical practice, policy development, and patient education. Use of surveillance data for this purpose is limited because risk classifications exclude same-gender sex among women or subsume it under behaviors considered as higher risk. However, sexual transmission of human papillomavirus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and Trichomonas vaginalis between women has been reported. Data indicate that lesbians receive routine Pap smear screening less frequently than is optimal. Moreover, lesbians commonly report previous pregnancy, induced abortion, and hormonal contraceptive use. Education of lesbians and their care providers should counter assumptions that sex between women confers no risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and lesbians should receive Pap smears according to current guidelines.

        Cite This Article
    EID Marrazzo JM. Barriers to Infectious Disease Care among Lesbians. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1974-1978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040467
    AMA Marrazzo JM. Barriers to Infectious Disease Care among Lesbians. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1974-1978. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040467.
    APA Marrazzo, J. M. (2004). Barriers to Infectious Disease Care among Lesbians. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1974-1978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040467.
  • Gender and Monitoring Response to HIV/AIDS Pandemic PDF Version [PDF - 255 KB - 5 pages]
    P. DeLay
        View Abstract

    The mechanisms, techniques, and data sources used to monitor and evaluate global AIDS prevention and treatment services may vary according to gender. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS has been charged with tracking the response to the pandemic by using a set of indicators developed as part of the Declaration of Commitment endorsed at the U.N. General Assembly Special Session on AIDS in 2001. Statistics on prevalence and incidence indicate that the pandemic has increasingly affected women during the past decade. Women’s biologic, cultural, economic, and social status can increase their likelihood of becoming infected with HIV.

        Cite This Article
    EID DeLay P. Gender and Monitoring Response to HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1979-1983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040498
    AMA DeLay P. Gender and Monitoring Response to HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1979-1983. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040498.
    APA DeLay, P. (2004). Gender and Monitoring Response to HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1979-1983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040498.
  • Nurses’ Working Conditions: Implications for Infectious Disease PDF Version [PDF - 213 KB - 6 pages]
    P. W. Stone et al.
        View Abstract

    Staffing patterns and nurses’ working conditions are risk factors for healthcare-associated infections as well as occupational injuries and infections. Staffing shortages, especially of nurses, have been identified as one of the major factors expected to constrain hospitals’ ability to deal with future outbreaks of emerging infections. These problems are compounded by a global nursing shortage. Understanding and improving nurses’ working conditions can potentially decrease the incidence of many infectious diseases. Relevant research is reviewed, and policy options are discussed.

        Cite This Article
    EID Stone PW, Clarke S, Cimiotti J, Correa-de-Araujo R. Nurses’ Working Conditions: Implications for Infectious Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1984-1989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040253
    AMA Stone PW, Clarke S, Cimiotti J, et al. Nurses’ Working Conditions: Implications for Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1984-1989. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040253.
    APA Stone, P. W., Clarke, S., Cimiotti, J., & Correa-de-Araujo, R. (2004). Nurses’ Working Conditions: Implications for Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1984-1989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040253.
  • Vaccines for Women Age 50 and Older PDF Version [PDF - 250 KB - 6 pages]
    P. Gardner and S. Pabbatireddy
        View Abstract

    For older populations, most of whom are women, preventing illnesses and deaths through the use of vaccines is a leading public health challenge. Our understanding about how age and sex affect the immune system is limited, and basic and translational research aimed at improving vaccines and immune responses of older persons is needed. In the meantime, fully implementing current vaccine recommendations, particularly those for influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, can save thousands of lives and prevent illnesses in persons >50 years of age.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gardner P, Pabbatireddy S. Vaccines for Women Age 50 and Older. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1990-1995. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040469
    AMA Gardner P, Pabbatireddy S. Vaccines for Women Age 50 and Older. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1990-1995. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040469.
    APA Gardner, P., & Pabbatireddy, S. (2004). Vaccines for Women Age 50 and Older. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1990-1995. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040469.
  • Sexual Power and HIV Risk, South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 279 KB - 9 pages]
    A. E. Pettifor et al.
    View Summary

    Among a sample of young women, limited sexual power was associated with inconsistent condom use but not directly with HIV.

        View Abstract

    Gender power inequities are believed to play a key role in the HIV epidemic through their effects on women’s power in sexual relationships. We hypothesized that lack of sexual power, measured with a four-point relationship control scale and by a woman’s experience of forced sex with her most recent partner, would decrease the likelihood of consistent condom use and increase the risk for HIV infection among sexually experienced, 15- to 24-year-old women in South Africa. While limited sexual power was not directly associated with HIV, it was associated with inconsistent condom use: women with low relationship control were 2.10 times more likely to use condoms inconsistently (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–3.78), and women experiencing forced sex were 5.77 times more likely to inconsistently use condoms (95% CI 1.86–17.91). Inconsistent condom use was, in turn, significantly associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.10–2.27).

        Cite This Article
    EID Pettifor AE, Measham DM, Rees HV, Padian NS. Sexual Power and HIV Risk, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1996-2004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040252
    AMA Pettifor AE, Measham DM, Rees HV, et al. Sexual Power and HIV Risk, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1996-2004. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040252.
    APA Pettifor, A. E., Measham, D. M., Rees, H. V., & Padian, N. S. (2004). Sexual Power and HIV Risk, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1996-2004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040252.
  • Women and Autoimmune Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 206 KB - 7 pages]
    D. Fairweather and N. R. Rose
        View Abstract

    Autoimmune diseases affect approximately 8% of the population, 78% of whom are women. The reasons for the high prevalence in women are unknown, but circumstantial evidence links autoimmune diseases with preceding infections. Animal models of autoimmune diseases have shown that infections can induce autoimmune disease. For example, coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection of susceptible mice results in inflammation of the heart (myocarditis) that resembles myocarditis in humans. The same disease can be induced by injecting mice with heart proteins mixed with adjuvant(s), which indicates that an active infection is not necessary for the development of autoimmune disease. We have found that CB3 triggers autoimmune disease in susceptible mice by stimulating elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines from mast cells during the innate immune response. Sex hormones may further amplify this hyperimmune response to infection in susceptible persons, which leads to an increased prevalence of autoimmune diseases in women.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fairweather D, Rose NR. Women and Autoimmune Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2005-2011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040367
    AMA Fairweather D, Rose NR. Women and Autoimmune Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2005-2011. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040367.
    APA Fairweather, D., & Rose, N. R. (2004). Women and Autoimmune Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2005-2011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040367.
  • Contribution of Sex-linked Biology and Gender Roles to Disparities with Trachoma PDF Version [PDF - 58 KB - 5 pages]
    P. Courtright and S. West
        View Abstract

    Globally, trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. Survey data consistently show that trachoma-related blindness is two to four times higher in women than men. Tracing the increased risk for trachoma and its consequences for women suggests that other factors besides biology may contribute. Understanding the reasons for the excess risk for and consequences of trachoma in girls and women requires examining a number of issues: Are girls and women more biologically susceptible to the consequences of infection with C. trachomatis? Could other factors help explain the excess of conjunctival scarring and trichiasis in women? Do gender roles affect the risk for trachoma and its consequences? Are women more likely to have recurrence after trichiasis surgery compared to men? This article explores the answers to these questions.

        Cite This Article
    EID Courtright P, West S. Contribution of Sex-linked Biology and Gender Roles to Disparities with Trachoma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2012-2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040353
    AMA Courtright P, West S. Contribution of Sex-linked Biology and Gender Roles to Disparities with Trachoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2012-2016. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040353.
    APA Courtright, P., & West, S. (2004). Contribution of Sex-linked Biology and Gender Roles to Disparities with Trachoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2012-2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040353.
  • Rubella Elimination and Improving Health Care for Women PDF Version [PDF - 111 KB - 5 pages]
    C. Castillo-Solórzano and J. K. Andrus
        View Abstract

    In the Americas, the Pan American Health Organization supports strategies for the appropriate control and elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases, especially if the strategies are designed to reduce health inequities, strengthen the political commitment for immunization services, and promote the culture of prevention. In September 2003, the 44th Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization adopted a goal to eliminate rubella and congenital rubella syndrome by 2010. One of the main objectives of this initiative is improving women’s health, consistent with achieving the Millennium Development Goals. An important component of rubella elimination is conducting vaccination campaigns for men and women of childbearing age to reduce rapidly the number of people susceptible to rubella infection. From 1998 to 2002, the English-speaking Caribbean, Chile, Costa Rica, Brazil, and Honduras conducted mass rubella vaccination campaigns aimed at adults. Vaccination coverage reached >95% in each country with an exception of the Caribbean, where the coverage was 80%.

        Cite This Article
    EID Castillo-Solórzano C, Andrus JK. Rubella Elimination and Improving Health Care for Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2017-2021. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040428
    AMA Castillo-Solórzano C, Andrus JK. Rubella Elimination and Improving Health Care for Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2017-2021. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040428.
    APA Castillo-Solórzano, C., & Andrus, J. K. (2004). Rubella Elimination and Improving Health Care for Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2017-2021. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040428.
  • Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women PDF Version [PDF - 183 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Bellamy
        View Abstract

    Women have an enhanced vulnerability to disease, especially if they are poor. Indeed, the health hazards of being female are widely underestimated. Economic and cultural factors can limit women’s access to clinics and health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that less is spent on health care for women and girls worldwide than for men and boys. As a result, women who become mothers and caretakers of children and husbands often do so at the expense of their own health. The numbers tell the story: the latest (2003) World Health Report showed that, globally, the leading causes of death among women are HIV/AIDS, malaria, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and tuberculosis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bellamy C. Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2022-2024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040485
    AMA Bellamy C. Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2022-2024. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040485.
    APA Bellamy, C. (2004). Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2022-2024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040485.
  • Women, Water Management, and Health PDF Version [PDF - 37 KB - 2 pages]
    S. Watts
            Cite This Article
    EID Watts S. Women, Water Management, and Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2025-2026. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040237
    AMA Watts S. Women, Water Management, and Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2025-2026. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040237.
    APA Watts, S. (2004). Women, Water Management, and Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2025-2026. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040237.

ICWID Session Summaries

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (ICEID)

  • International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases PDF Version [PDF - 284 KB - 2 pages]
    R. V. Tauxe et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Tauxe RV, Khabbaz RF, Cameron DN, Feinman L. International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2037-2038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040857
    AMA Tauxe RV, Khabbaz RF, Cameron DN, et al. International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2037-2038. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040857.
    APA Tauxe, R. V., Khabbaz, R. F., Cameron, D. N., & Feinman, L. (2004). International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2037-2038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040857.
  • Plagues, Public Health, and Politics PDF Version [PDF - 112 KB - 5 pages]
    J. P. Koplan and M. McPheeters
            Cite This Article
    EID Koplan JP, McPheeters M. Plagues, Public Health, and Politics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2039-2043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040673
    AMA Koplan JP, McPheeters M. Plagues, Public Health, and Politics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2039-2043. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040673.
    APA Koplan, J. P., & McPheeters, M. (2004). Plagues, Public Health, and Politics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2039-2043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040673.
  • Smallpox Models as Policy Tools PDF Version [PDF - 48 KB - 4 pages]
    F. E. McKenzie
        View Abstract

    Mathematical models can help prepare for and respond to bioterrorism attacks, provided that their strengths and weaknesses are clearly understood. A series of initiatives within the Department of Health and Human Services brought modelers together with biologists and epidemiologists who specialize in smallpox and experts in bioterrorism response and health policy and has led to the parallel development of models with different technical approaches but standardized scenarios, parameter ranges and outcome measures. Cross-disciplinary interactions throughout the process supported the development of models focused on systematically comparing alternate intervention strategies, determining the most important issues in decision-making, and identifying gaps in current knowledge.

        Cite This Article
    EID McKenzie FE. Smallpox Models as Policy Tools. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2044-2047. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040455
    AMA McKenzie FE. Smallpox Models as Policy Tools. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2044-2047. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040455.
    APA McKenzie, F. E. (2004). Smallpox Models as Policy Tools. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2044-2047. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040455.

ICEID Session Summaries

  • Healthcare Settings as Amplifiers of Infectious Disease
    L. A. Chiarello and M. L. Tapper
            Cite This Article
    EID Chiarello LA, Tapper ML. Healthcare Settings as Amplifiers of Infectious Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2048-2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_01
    AMA Chiarello LA, Tapper ML. Healthcare Settings as Amplifiers of Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2048-2049. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_01.
    APA Chiarello, L. A., & Tapper, M. L. (2004). Healthcare Settings as Amplifiers of Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2048-2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_01.
  • SARS, the First Pandemic of the 21st Century
    J. W. LeDuc and M. Barry
           
  • Transformation of the Developing World: Socioeconomic Matrix
    D. Carroll et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Carroll D, Gardner P, Kay BA, Osterholm M, Ryan ET. Transformation of the Developing World: Socioeconomic Matrix. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_03
    AMA Carroll D, Gardner P, Kay BA, et al. Transformation of the Developing World: Socioeconomic Matrix. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2049. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_03.
    APA Carroll, D., Gardner, P., Kay, B. A., Osterholm, M., & Ryan, E. T. (2004). Transformation of the Developing World: Socioeconomic Matrix. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_03.
  • HIV, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Resurgence and Response
    S. Holmberg et al.
           
  • New and Emerging Zoonoses
    M. Pappaioanou et al.
           
  • New Concepts for Vaccines
    T. V. Murphy et al.
           
  • HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Antimicrobial Resistance
    J. Weber and G. Cassell
           
  • Foodborne Diseases in the Global Community
    E. Scallan et al.
           
  • Mathematical Modeling and Public Policy: Responding to Health Crises
    J. Glasser et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Glasser J, Meltzer MI, Levin B. Mathematical Modeling and Public Policy: Responding to Health Crises. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2050-2051. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_08
    AMA Glasser J, Meltzer MI, Levin B. Mathematical Modeling and Public Policy: Responding to Health Crises. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2050-2051. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_08.
    APA Glasser, J., Meltzer, M. I., & Levin, B. (2004). Mathematical Modeling and Public Policy: Responding to Health Crises. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2050-2051. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_08.
  • Public Health Workforce Development
    R. Imtiaz and G. Cassell
            Cite This Article
    EID Imtiaz R, Cassell G. Public Health Workforce Development. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2051-2052. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_09
    AMA Imtiaz R, Cassell G. Public Health Workforce Development. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2051-2052. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_09.
    APA Imtiaz, R., & Cassell, G. (2004). Public Health Workforce Development. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2051-2052. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_09.
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    F. C. Tenover and M. L. Pearson
            Cite This Article
    EID Tenover FC, Pearson ML. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2052-2053. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_10
    AMA Tenover FC, Pearson ML. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2052-2053. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_10.
    APA Tenover, F. C., & Pearson, M. L. (2004). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2052-2053. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_10.
  • Battling 21st-Century Scourges with a 14th-Century Toolbox
    M. S. Cetron and P. Simone
            Cite This Article
    EID Cetron MS, Simone P. Battling 21st-Century Scourges with a 14th-Century Toolbox. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2053-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_12
    AMA Cetron MS, Simone P. Battling 21st-Century Scourges with a 14th-Century Toolbox. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2053-2054. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_12.
    APA Cetron, M. S., & Simone, P. (2004). Battling 21st-Century Scourges with a 14th-Century Toolbox. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2053-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_12.
  • Emerging Issues for the Public Health Laboratory
    P. Somsel and D. Warnock
            Cite This Article
    EID Somsel P, Warnock D. Emerging Issues for the Public Health Laboratory. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2054-2055. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_13
    AMA Somsel P, Warnock D. Emerging Issues for the Public Health Laboratory. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2054-2055. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_13.
    APA Somsel, P., & Warnock, D. (2004). Emerging Issues for the Public Health Laboratory. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2054-2055. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_13.

Volume 10, Number 11—November 2004 - Continued

Perspective

  • Trachoma Decline and Widespread Use of Antimicrobial Drugs PDF Version [PDF - 213 KB - 5 pages]
    J. D. Chidambaram et al.
        View Abstract

    Trachoma is disappearing in many parts of the world, even in the absence of specific control programs. Following mass antimicrobial drug treatments for trachoma in western Nepal, the prevalence of trachoma declined far more rapidly than could be attributed to the control program alone. Pharmacy surveys in the same region found that children received more antichlamydial drugs from sources outside the trachoma program than they did from the program itself. We demonstrate that high background antimicrobial drug use may be responsible for much of the observed decline in trachoma and discuss its potential role in eliminating this infectious disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Chidambaram JD, Bird M, Schiedler V, Fry AM, Porco T, Bhatta RC, et al. Trachoma Decline and Widespread Use of Antimicrobial Drugs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1896-1899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040476
    AMA Chidambaram JD, Bird M, Schiedler V, et al. Trachoma Decline and Widespread Use of Antimicrobial Drugs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1896-1899. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040476.
    APA Chidambaram, J. D., Bird, M., Schiedler, V., Fry, A. M., Porco, T., Bhatta, R. C....Lietman, T. M. (2004). Trachoma Decline and Widespread Use of Antimicrobial Drugs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1896-1899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040476.

Research

  • Topographic Changes in SARS Coronavirus–infected Cells during Late Stages of Infection PDF Version [PDF - 586 KB - 8 pages]
    M. Ng et al.
        View Abstract

    Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy was used for the first time to view the maturation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus at the cell surface. The surface form of the cells at advanced infection displayed prolific pseudopodia that, in addition to the rest of the plasma membrane, were also active sites of virus release. High magnification of the maturing virus particles showed a rosette appearance with short knoblike spikes under both the scanning electron and atomic force microscopes. The final expulsion step of the maturing virus particles seemed to result in some disruptions to the plasma membrane. The cytoskeletal network along the edge of the infected cells was enhanced and could be involved in transporting and expelling the progeny virus particles. Thickening of the actin filaments at the cell edge provided the bending force to extrude the virus particles.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ng M, Lee J, Leong M, Ling A, Tan H, Ooi E, et al. Topographic Changes in SARS Coronavirus–infected Cells during Late Stages of Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1907-1914. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040195
    AMA Ng M, Lee J, Leong M, et al. Topographic Changes in SARS Coronavirus–infected Cells during Late Stages of Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1907-1914. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040195.
    APA Ng, M., Lee, J., Leong, M., Ling, A., Tan, H., & Ooi, E. (2004). Topographic Changes in SARS Coronavirus–infected Cells during Late Stages of Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1907-1914. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040195.
  • Evaluating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs PDF Version [PDF - 347 KB - 9 pages]
    A. V. Taira et al.
        View Abstract

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated as the primary etiologic agent of cervical cancer. Potential vaccines against high-risk HPV types are in clinical trials. We evaluated vaccination programs with a vaccine against HPV-16 and HPV-18. We developed disease transmission models that estimated HPV prevalence and infection rates for the population overall, by age group, by level of sexual activity within each age group, and by sex. Data were based on clinical trials and published and unpublished sources. An HPV-16/18 vaccine for 12-year-old girls would reduce cohort cervical cancer cases by 61.8%, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of $14,583 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Including male participants in a vaccine rollout would further reduce cervical cancer cases by 2.2% at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $442,039/QALY compared to female-only vaccination. Vaccination against HPV-16 and HPV-18 can be cost-effective, although including male participants in a vaccination program is generally not cost-effective, compared to female-only vaccination.

        Cite This Article
    EID Taira AV, Neukermans CP, Sanders GD. Evaluating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1915-1923. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040222
    AMA Taira AV, Neukermans CP, Sanders GD. Evaluating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1915-1923. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040222.
    APA Taira, A. V., Neukermans, C. P., & Sanders, G. D. (2004). Evaluating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1915-1923. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040222.
  • Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Inpatients PDF Version [PDF - 112 KB - 7 pages]
    D. S. Yokoe et al.
    View Summary

    Monitoring antimicrobial exposure and diagnosis codes for certain procedures identifies more postoperative infections than routine surveillance methods.

        View Abstract

    We evaluated antimicrobial exposure, discharge diagnoses, or both to identify surgical site infections (SSI). This retrospective cohort study in 13 hospitals involved weighted, random samples of records from 8,739 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures, 7,399 cesarean deliveries, and 6,175 breast procedures. We compared routine surveillance to detection through inpatient antimicrobial exposure (>9 days for CABG, >2 days for cesareans, and >6 days for breast procedures), discharge diagnoses, or both. Together, all methods identified SSI after 7.4% of CABG, 5.0% of cesareans, and 2.0% of breast procedures. Antimicrobial exposure had the highest sensitivity, 88%–91%, compared with routine surveillance, 38%–64%. Diagnosis codes improved sensitivity of detection of antimicrobial exposure after cesareans. Record review confirmed SSI after 31% to 38% of procedures that met antimicrobial surveillance criteria. Sufficient antimicrobial exposure days, together with diagnosis codes for cesareans, identified more postoperative SSI than routine surveillance methods. This screening method was efficient, readily standardized, and suitable for most hospitals.

        Cite This Article
    EID Yokoe DS, Noskin GA, Cunningham SM, Zuccotti G, Plaskett T, Fraser VJ, et al. Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Inpatients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1924-1930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040572
    AMA Yokoe DS, Noskin GA, Cunningham SM, et al. Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Inpatients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1924-1930. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040572.
    APA Yokoe, D. S., Noskin, G. A., Cunningham, S. M., Zuccotti, G., Plaskett, T., Fraser, V. J....Platt, R. (2004). Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Inpatients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1924-1930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040572.
  • Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Outpatients PDF Version [PDF - 132 KB - 7 pages]
    A. L. Miner et al.
    View Summary

    Claims data complement other data sources for identification of surgical site infections following breast surgery and cesarean section.

        View Abstract

    We investigated using administrative claims data to identify surgical site infections (SSI) after breast surgery and cesarean section. Postoperative diagnosis codes, procedure codes, and pharmacy information were automatically scanned and used to identify claims suggestive of SSI ("indicators") among 426 (22%) of 1,943 breast procedures and 474 (10%) of 4,859 cesarean sections. For 104 breast procedures with indicators explained in available medical records, SSI were confirmed for 37%, and some infection criteria were present for another 27%. Among 204 cesarean sections, SSI were confirmed for 40%, and some criteria were met for 27%. The extrapolated infection rates of 2.8% for breast procedures and 3.1% for cesarean section were similar to those reported by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance program but differ in representing predominantly outpatient infections. Claims data may complement other data sources for identification of surgical site infections following breast surgery and cesarean section.

        Cite This Article
    EID Miner AL, Sands KE, Yokoe DS, Freedman J, Thompson K, Livingston JM, et al. Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Outpatients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1931-1937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040784
    AMA Miner AL, Sands KE, Yokoe DS, et al. Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Outpatients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1931-1937. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040784.
    APA Miner, A. L., Sands, K. E., Yokoe, D. S., Freedman, J., Thompson, K., Livingston, J. M....Platt, R. (2004). Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Outpatients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1931-1937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040784.
  • Histopathologic Improvement with Lymphedema Management, Léogâne, Haiti PDF Version [PDF - 381 KB - 9 pages]
    S. F. Wilson et al.
        View Abstract

    In countries where bancroftian filariasis is endemic, lymphedema of the leg is a public health problem, particularly for women, who are disproportionately affected. We investigated the effect of basic lymphedema management (hygiene, skin care, and lower limb movement and elevation) on the histologic features of lymphedema. A total of 118 skin-punch biopsies were collected from the legs of 91 patients enrolled in a lymphedema treatment clinic in Léogâne, Haiti. Follow-up biopsies were collected from 27 patients ≈12 months later. Keratinocyte hyperproliferation, condensed dermal collagen, and mononuclear perivascular infiltrate increased with lymphedema stage, which suggested progressive chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Follow-up biopsies showed reductions in perivascular mononuclear infiltrate in the superficial dermis (41% decrease in prevalence), perivascular fibrosis in the deep dermis (58% decrease), and periadnexal mononuclear infiltrate (53% decrease). These data suggest that the clinical improvement commonly observed with basic lymphedema management has a histologic basis.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wilson SF, Guarner J, Valme AL, Louis-Charles J, Jones TL, Addiss DG, et al. Histopathologic Improvement with Lymphedema Management, Léogâne, Haiti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1938-1946. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040548
    AMA Wilson SF, Guarner J, Valme AL, et al. Histopathologic Improvement with Lymphedema Management, Léogâne, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1938-1946. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040548.
    APA Wilson, S. F., Guarner, J., Valme, A. L., Louis-Charles, J., Jones, T. L., & Addiss, D. G. (2004). Histopathologic Improvement with Lymphedema Management, Léogâne, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1938-1946. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040548.

Policy Review

  • Public Health Interventions and SARS Spread, 2003 PDF Version [PDF - 202 KB - 7 pages]
    D. M. Bell
        View Abstract

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was contained largely through traditional public health interventions, such as finding and isolating patients, quarantining close contacts, and enhanced infection control. The independent effectiveness of measures to “increase social distance” and wearing masks in public places requires further evaluation. Limited data exist on the effectiveness of providing health information to travelers. Entry screening of travelers through health declarations or thermal scanning at international borders had little documented effect on detecting SARS cases; exit screening appeared slightly more effective. The value of border screening in deterring travel by ill persons and in building public confidence remains unquantified. Interventions to control global epidemics should be based on expert advice from the World Health Organization and national authorities. In the case of SARS, interventions at a country’s borders should not detract from efforts to identify and isolate infected persons within the country, monitor or quarantine their contacts, and strengthen infection control in healthcare settings.

        Cite This Article
    EID Bell DM. Public Health Interventions and SARS Spread, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1900-1906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040729
    AMA Bell DM. Public Health Interventions and SARS Spread, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1900-1906. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040729.
    APA Bell, D. M. (2004). Public Health Interventions and SARS Spread, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1900-1906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040729.

Dispatches

  • Nucleocapsid Protein as Early Diagnostic Marker for SARS PDF Version [PDF - 280 KB - 3 pages]
    X. Che et al.
        View Abstract

    Serum samples from 317 patients with patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were tested for the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-associated coronavirus, with sensitivities of 94% and 78% for the first 5 days and 6–10 days after onset, respectively. The specificity was 99.9%. N protein can be used as an early diagnostic maker for SARS.

        Cite This Article
    EID Che X, Hao W, Wang Y, Di B, Yin K, Xu Y, et al. Nucleocapsid Protein as Early Diagnostic Marker for SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1947-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040516
    AMA Che X, Hao W, Wang Y, et al. Nucleocapsid Protein as Early Diagnostic Marker for SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1947-1949. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040516.
    APA Che, X., Hao, W., Wang, Y., Di, B., Yin, K., Xu, Y....Woo, P. (2004). Nucleocapsid Protein as Early Diagnostic Marker for SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1947-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040516.
  • Human Infection Caused by Clostridium hathewayi PDF Version [PDF - 348 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Elsayed and K. Zhang
        View Abstract

    We describe a 27-year-old man with acute cholecystitis, hepatic abscess, and bacteremia caused by Clostridium hathewayi, a newly described gram-negative, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. This report is the first of human infection caused by this microorganism.

        Cite This Article
    EID Elsayed S, Zhang K. Human Infection Caused by Clostridium hathewayi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1950-1952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040006
    AMA Elsayed S, Zhang K. Human Infection Caused by Clostridium hathewayi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1950-1952. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040006.
    APA Elsayed, S., & Zhang, K. (2004). Human Infection Caused by Clostridium hathewayi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1950-1952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040006.
  • Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa PDF Version [PDF - 232 KB - 4 pages]
    C. Laurent et al.
        View Abstract

    We found a high seroprevalence of HIV among young women in a commercial logging area in Cameroon. The vulnerability of these young women could be related to commercial logging and the social and economic networks it induces. The environmental changes related to this industry in Equatorial Africa may facilitate HIV dissemination.

        Cite This Article
    EID Laurent C, Bourgeois A, Mpoudi M, Butel C, Peeters M, Mpoudi-Ngolé E, et al. Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1953-1956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040180
    AMA Laurent C, Bourgeois A, Mpoudi M, et al. Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1953-1956. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040180.
    APA Laurent, C., Bourgeois, A., Mpoudi, M., Butel, C., Peeters, M., Mpoudi-Ngolé, E....Delaporte, E. (2004). Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1953-1956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040180.
  • Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C PDF Version [PDF - 244 KB - 3 pages]
    A. Petrucca et al.
        View Abstract

    We report a case of a vaginal infection caused by a strain of Burkholderia cenocepacia. The strain was isolated from vaginal swab specimens from a 68-year-old woman with smoldering myeloma and chronic hepatitis C virus infection who was hospitalized for abdominal abscess. Treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam eliminated B. cenocepacia infection and vaginal symptoms

        Cite This Article
    EID Petrucca A, Cipriani P, Sessa R, Teggi A, Pustorino R, Santapaola D, et al. Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1957-1959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040127
    AMA Petrucca A, Cipriani P, Sessa R, et al. Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1957-1959. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040127.
    APA Petrucca, A., Cipriani, P., Sessa, R., Teggi, A., Pustorino, R., Santapaola, D....Nicoletti, M. (2004). Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1957-1959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040127.
  • Decreased Levofloxacin Susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae in Children, Hong Kong
    P. L. Ho et al.
        View Abstract

    Among 563 strains of Haemophilus influenzae from young children in Hong Kong, 5 (0.9%) had decreased susceptibility to quinolones. The five strains had a Ser-84-Lys or Asp-88-Asn substitution in GyrA. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the isolates are genetically diverse.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ho PL, Chow KH, Mak GC, Tsang KW, Lau YL, Ho P, et al. Decreased Levofloxacin Susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae in Children, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1960-1962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040055
    AMA Ho PL, Chow KH, Mak GC, et al. Decreased Levofloxacin Susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae in Children, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1960-1962. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040055.
    APA Ho, P. L., Chow, K. H., Mak, G. C., Tsang, K. W., Lau, Y. L., Ho, P....Chiu, S. S. (2004). Decreased Levofloxacin Susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae in Children, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1960-1962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040055.

Another Dimension

  • The Woman at the Dig PDF Version [PDF - 42 KB - 1 page]
    L. Dangel
            Cite This Article
    EID Dangel L. The Woman at the Dig. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.AD1011
    AMA Dangel L. The Woman at the Dig. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1964. doi:10.3201/eid1011.AD1011.
    APA Dangel, L. (2004). The Woman at the Dig. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.AD1011.

Letters

  • Tuberculosis and Sexually Transmitted Infections PDF Version [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
    N. J. Nagelkerke et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Nagelkerke NJ, de Vlas SJ, MacDonald KS, Rieder HL. Tuberculosis and Sexually Transmitted Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2055-2056. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.030785
    AMA Nagelkerke NJ, de Vlas SJ, MacDonald KS, et al. Tuberculosis and Sexually Transmitted Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2055-2056. doi:10.3201/eid1011.030785.
    APA Nagelkerke, N. J., de Vlas, S. J., MacDonald, K. S., & Rieder, H. L. (2004). Tuberculosis and Sexually Transmitted Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2055-2056. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.030785.
  • Leptotrichia amnionii and the Female Reproductive Tract PDF Version [PDF - 29 KB - 2 pages]
    V. A. Gundi et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Gundi VA, Desbriere R, La Scola B. Leptotrichia amnionii and the Female Reproductive Tract. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2056-2057. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.031019
    AMA Gundi VA, Desbriere R, La Scola B. Leptotrichia amnionii and the Female Reproductive Tract. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2056-2057. doi:10.3201/eid1011.031019.
    APA Gundi, V. A., Desbriere, R., & La Scola, B. (2004). Leptotrichia amnionii and the Female Reproductive Tract. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2056-2057. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.031019.
  • Cholera in Mozambique, Variant of Vibrio cholerae PDF Version [PDF - 82 KB - 2 pages]
    M. Ansaruzzaman et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Ansaruzzaman M, Bhuiyan N, Nair GB, Sack DA, Lucas M, Deen JL, et al. Cholera in Mozambique, Variant of Vibrio cholerae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2057-2059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040682
    AMA Ansaruzzaman M, Bhuiyan N, Nair GB, et al. Cholera in Mozambique, Variant of Vibrio cholerae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2057-2059. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040682.
    APA Ansaruzzaman, M., Bhuiyan, N., Nair, G. B., Sack, D. A., Lucas, M., Deen, J. L....Chaignat, C. (2004). Cholera in Mozambique, Variant of Vibrio cholerae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2057-2059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040682.

Books and Media

  • Vaccines: Preventing Disease Protecting Health PDF Version [PDF - 23 KB - 1 page]
    M. A. Strassburg
            Cite This Article
    EID Strassburg MA. Vaccines: Preventing Disease Protecting Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2060. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040728
    AMA Strassburg MA. Vaccines: Preventing Disease Protecting Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2060. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040728.
    APA Strassburg, M. A. (2004). Vaccines: Preventing Disease Protecting Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2060. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040728.

About the Cover

  • Scientific Discovery and Women’s Health PDF Version [PDF - 128 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Scientific Discovery and Women’s Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2062-2063. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.AC1011
    AMA Potter P. Scientific Discovery and Women’s Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2062-2063. doi:10.3201/eid1011.AC1011.
    APA Potter, P. (2004). Scientific Discovery and Women’s Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2062-2063. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.AC1011.

Conference Summaries

  • National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria PDF Version [PDF - 46 KB - 1 page]
    C. N. Holmes and T. M. Chiller
            Cite This Article
    EID Holmes CN, Chiller TM. National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2061. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040665
    AMA Holmes CN, Chiller TM. National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2061. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040665.
    APA Holmes, C. N., & Chiller, T. M. (2004). National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2061. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040665.

Corrections

  • Correction, vol. 10, no. 10 PDF Version [PDF - 22 KB - 1 page]
            Cite This Article
    EID Correction, vol. 10, no. 10. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.C11011
    AMA Correction, vol. 10, no. 10. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2059. doi:10.3201/eid1011.C11011.
    APA (2004). Correction, vol. 10, no. 10. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.C11011.
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