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Issue Cover for Volume 10, Number 11—November 2004

Volume 10, Number 11—November 2004

[PDF - 7.46 MB - 175 pages]

THEME ISSUE
ICEID & ICWID 2004
International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases (ICWID)

International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, February 27–28, 2004 [PDF - 76 KB - 2 pages]
M. McDonald et al.
EID McDonald M, Anker M, Deal C, Mawle A, O’Connor S, Slaughter L. International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, February 27–28, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1963-1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040612
AMA McDonald M, Anker M, Deal C, et al. International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, February 27–28, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1963-1964. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040612.
APA McDonald, M., Anker, M., Deal, C., Mawle, A., O’Connor, S., & Slaughter, L. (2004). International Conference on Women and Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia, February 27–28, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1963-1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040612.

Women and Infectious Diseases [PDF - 118 KB - 3 pages]
J. L. Gerberding
EID Gerberding JL. Women and Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1965-1967. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040800
AMA Gerberding JL. Women and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1965-1967. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040800.
APA Gerberding, J. L. (2004). Women and Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1965-1967. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040800.

Steps for Preventing Infectious Diseases in Women [PDF - 98 KB - 6 pages]
M. R. Periago et al.

Communicable diseases account for approximately 25% of deaths in most Latin American and Caribbean countries; illness from communicable diseases reaches 40% in developing countries. Mainly affected are poor women in rural areas. A medical approach is not sufficient to implement effective infectious disease prevention strategies in women, which would offset these numbers. Health policies must be changed, and social restrictions that circumscribe women need to be eliminated. In the long run, the only solution is to improve women’s socioeconomic status. The following three steps are necessary for developing a prevention strategy: 1) a gender perspective must be incorporated into infectious disease analysis and research to target policies and programs. Data collected must be disaggregated by sex, age, socioeconomic status, education, ethnicity, and geographic location; 2) models must be developed and implemented that address gender inequities in infectious diseases in an integrated manner; and 3) outreach activities must be supported, using information, education, and communication strategies and materials for advocacy and training. Active participation of civil society groups is key to translating the strategy into specific interventions.

EID Periago MR, Fescina R, Ramón-Pardo P. Steps for Preventing Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1968-1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040555
AMA Periago MR, Fescina R, Ramón-Pardo P. Steps for Preventing Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1968-1973. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040555.
APA Periago, M. R., Fescina, R., & Ramón-Pardo, P. (2004). Steps for Preventing Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1968-1973. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040555.

Barriers to Infectious Disease Care among Lesbians [PDF - 147 KB - 5 pages]
J. M. Marrazzo

Despite the considerable number of women in the United States who identify as lesbian, few data exist that address lesbians’ health needs. The Institute of Medicine emphasized that data on sexually transmitted infections, Pap smear screening, and cervical dysplasia among lesbians were needed to guide clinical practice, policy development, and patient education. Use of surveillance data for this purpose is limited because risk classifications exclude same-gender sex among women or subsume it under behaviors considered as higher risk. However, sexual transmission of human papillomavirus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and Trichomonas vaginalis between women has been reported. Data indicate that lesbians receive routine Pap smear screening less frequently than is optimal. Moreover, lesbians commonly report previous pregnancy, induced abortion, and hormonal contraceptive use. Education of lesbians and their care providers should counter assumptions that sex between women confers no risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and lesbians should receive Pap smears according to current guidelines.

EID Marrazzo JM. Barriers to Infectious Disease Care among Lesbians. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1974-1978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040467
AMA Marrazzo JM. Barriers to Infectious Disease Care among Lesbians. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1974-1978. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040467.
APA Marrazzo, J. M. (2004). Barriers to Infectious Disease Care among Lesbians. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1974-1978. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040467.

Gender and Monitoring Response to HIV/AIDS Pandemic [PDF - 255 KB - 5 pages]
P. DeLay

The mechanisms, techniques, and data sources used to monitor and evaluate global AIDS prevention and treatment services may vary according to gender. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS has been charged with tracking the response to the pandemic by using a set of indicators developed as part of the Declaration of Commitment endorsed at the U.N. General Assembly Special Session on AIDS in 2001. Statistics on prevalence and incidence indicate that the pandemic has increasingly affected women during the past decade. Women’s biologic, cultural, economic, and social status can increase their likelihood of becoming infected with HIV.

EID DeLay P. Gender and Monitoring Response to HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1979-1983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040498
AMA DeLay P. Gender and Monitoring Response to HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1979-1983. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040498.
APA DeLay, P. (2004). Gender and Monitoring Response to HIV/AIDS Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1979-1983. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040498.

Nurses’ Working Conditions: Implications for Infectious Disease [PDF - 213 KB - 6 pages]
P. W. Stone et al.

Staffing patterns and nurses’ working conditions are risk factors for healthcare-associated infections as well as occupational injuries and infections. Staffing shortages, especially of nurses, have been identified as one of the major factors expected to constrain hospitals’ ability to deal with future outbreaks of emerging infections. These problems are compounded by a global nursing shortage. Understanding and improving nurses’ working conditions can potentially decrease the incidence of many infectious diseases. Relevant research is reviewed, and policy options are discussed.

EID Stone PW, Clarke S, Cimiotti J, Correa-de-Araujo R. Nurses’ Working Conditions: Implications for Infectious Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1984-1989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040253
AMA Stone PW, Clarke S, Cimiotti J, et al. Nurses’ Working Conditions: Implications for Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1984-1989. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040253.
APA Stone, P. W., Clarke, S., Cimiotti, J., & Correa-de-Araujo, R. (2004). Nurses’ Working Conditions: Implications for Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1984-1989. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040253.

Vaccines for Women Age 50 and Older [PDF - 250 KB - 6 pages]
P. Gardner and S. Pabbatireddy

For older populations, most of whom are women, preventing illnesses and deaths through the use of vaccines is a leading public health challenge. Our understanding about how age and sex affect the immune system is limited, and basic and translational research aimed at improving vaccines and immune responses of older persons is needed. In the meantime, fully implementing current vaccine recommendations, particularly those for influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, can save thousands of lives and prevent illnesses in persons >50 years of age.

EID Gardner P, Pabbatireddy S. Vaccines for Women Age 50 and Older. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1990-1995. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040469
AMA Gardner P, Pabbatireddy S. Vaccines for Women Age 50 and Older. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1990-1995. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040469.
APA Gardner, P., & Pabbatireddy, S. (2004). Vaccines for Women Age 50 and Older. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1990-1995. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040469.

Sexual Power and HIV Risk, South Africa [PDF - 279 KB - 9 pages]
A. E. Pettifor et al.

Gender power inequities are believed to play a key role in the HIV epidemic through their effects on women’s power in sexual relationships. We hypothesized that lack of sexual power, measured with a four-point relationship control scale and by a woman’s experience of forced sex with her most recent partner, would decrease the likelihood of consistent condom use and increase the risk for HIV infection among sexually experienced, 15- to 24-year-old women in South Africa. While limited sexual power was not directly associated with HIV, it was associated with inconsistent condom use: women with low relationship control were 2.10 times more likely to use condoms inconsistently (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–3.78), and women experiencing forced sex were 5.77 times more likely to inconsistently use condoms (95% CI 1.86–17.91). Inconsistent condom use was, in turn, significantly associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.10–2.27).

EID Pettifor AE, Measham DM, Rees HV, Padian NS. Sexual Power and HIV Risk, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1996-2004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040252
AMA Pettifor AE, Measham DM, Rees HV, et al. Sexual Power and HIV Risk, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1996-2004. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040252.
APA Pettifor, A. E., Measham, D. M., Rees, H. V., & Padian, N. S. (2004). Sexual Power and HIV Risk, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1996-2004. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040252.

Women and Autoimmune Diseases [PDF - 206 KB - 7 pages]
D. Fairweather and N. R. Rose

Autoimmune diseases affect approximately 8% of the population, 78% of whom are women. The reasons for the high prevalence in women are unknown, but circumstantial evidence links autoimmune diseases with preceding infections. Animal models of autoimmune diseases have shown that infections can induce autoimmune disease. For example, coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection of susceptible mice results in inflammation of the heart (myocarditis) that resembles myocarditis in humans. The same disease can be induced by injecting mice with heart proteins mixed with adjuvant(s), which indicates that an active infection is not necessary for the development of autoimmune disease. We have found that CB3 triggers autoimmune disease in susceptible mice by stimulating elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines from mast cells during the innate immune response. Sex hormones may further amplify this hyperimmune response to infection in susceptible persons, which leads to an increased prevalence of autoimmune diseases in women.

EID Fairweather D, Rose NR. Women and Autoimmune Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2005-2011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040367
AMA Fairweather D, Rose NR. Women and Autoimmune Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2005-2011. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040367.
APA Fairweather, D., & Rose, N. R. (2004). Women and Autoimmune Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2005-2011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040367.

Contribution of Sex-linked Biology and Gender Roles to Disparities with Trachoma [PDF - 58 KB - 5 pages]
P. Courtright and S. West

Globally, trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. Survey data consistently show that trachoma-related blindness is two to four times higher in women than men. Tracing the increased risk for trachoma and its consequences for women suggests that other factors besides biology may contribute. Understanding the reasons for the excess risk for and consequences of trachoma in girls and women requires examining a number of issues: Are girls and women more biologically susceptible to the consequences of infection with C. trachomatis? Could other factors help explain the excess of conjunctival scarring and trichiasis in women? Do gender roles affect the risk for trachoma and its consequences? Are women more likely to have recurrence after trichiasis surgery compared to men? This article explores the answers to these questions.

EID Courtright P, West S. Contribution of Sex-linked Biology and Gender Roles to Disparities with Trachoma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2012-2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040353
AMA Courtright P, West S. Contribution of Sex-linked Biology and Gender Roles to Disparities with Trachoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2012-2016. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040353.
APA Courtright, P., & West, S. (2004). Contribution of Sex-linked Biology and Gender Roles to Disparities with Trachoma. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2012-2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040353.

Rubella Elimination and Improving Health Care for Women [PDF - 111 KB - 5 pages]
C. Castillo-Solórzano and J. K. Andrus

In the Americas, the Pan American Health Organization supports strategies for the appropriate control and elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases, especially if the strategies are designed to reduce health inequities, strengthen the political commitment for immunization services, and promote the culture of prevention. In September 2003, the 44th Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization adopted a goal to eliminate rubella and congenital rubella syndrome by 2010. One of the main objectives of this initiative is improving women’s health, consistent with achieving the Millennium Development Goals. An important component of rubella elimination is conducting vaccination campaigns for men and women of childbearing age to reduce rapidly the number of people susceptible to rubella infection. From 1998 to 2002, the English-speaking Caribbean, Chile, Costa Rica, Brazil, and Honduras conducted mass rubella vaccination campaigns aimed at adults. Vaccination coverage reached >95% in each country with an exception of the Caribbean, where the coverage was 80%.

EID Castillo-Solórzano C, Andrus JK. Rubella Elimination and Improving Health Care for Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2017-2021. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040428
AMA Castillo-Solórzano C, Andrus JK. Rubella Elimination and Improving Health Care for Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2017-2021. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040428.
APA Castillo-Solórzano, C., & Andrus, J. K. (2004). Rubella Elimination and Improving Health Care for Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2017-2021. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040428.

Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women [PDF - 183 KB - 3 pages]
C. Bellamy

Women have an enhanced vulnerability to disease, especially if they are poor. Indeed, the health hazards of being female are widely underestimated. Economic and cultural factors can limit women’s access to clinics and health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that less is spent on health care for women and girls worldwide than for men and boys. As a result, women who become mothers and caretakers of children and husbands often do so at the expense of their own health. The numbers tell the story: the latest (2003) World Health Report showed that, globally, the leading causes of death among women are HIV/AIDS, malaria, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and tuberculosis.

EID Bellamy C. Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2022-2024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040485
AMA Bellamy C. Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2022-2024. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040485.
APA Bellamy, C. (2004). Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2022-2024. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040485.

Women, Water Management, and Health [PDF - 37 KB - 2 pages]
S. Watts
EID Watts S. Women, Water Management, and Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2025-2026. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040237
AMA Watts S. Women, Water Management, and Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2025-2026. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040237.
APA Watts, S. (2004). Women, Water Management, and Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2025-2026. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040237.
ICWID Session Summaries

Progress in Preventing Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States
M. Fowler et al.

Long-term Clinical Sequelae of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women
C. Deal et al.

Healthcare-related Infectious Diseases
N. Swanson et al.

Challenges in Healthcare Systems and Women's Caregiving Roles
R. Correa-de-Araujo et al.

Infectious Disease and Gender
J. H. Magnus et al.

Innovative Approaches to Infectious Disease Prevention in Women
M. McDonald et al.

Barriers to Infectious Disease Prevention among Women
J. Thierry et al.

Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Internationally [PDF - 135 KB - 2 pages]
N. Shaffer et al.
EID Shaffer N, McConnell M, Bolu O, Mbori-Ngacha D, Creek T, Ntumy R, et al. Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Internationally. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2027-2028. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040623_01
AMA Shaffer N, McConnell M, Bolu O, et al. Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Internationally. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2027-2028. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040623_01.
APA Shaffer, N., McConnell, M., Bolu, O., Mbori-Ngacha, D., Creek, T., Ntumy, R....Mazhani, L. (2004). Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Internationally. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2027-2028. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040623_01.

Disproportionate Impact of Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Women [PDF - 131 KB - 2 pages]
S. O. Aral et al.
EID Aral SO, Hawkes S, Biddlecom A, Padian N. Disproportionate Impact of Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2029-2030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040623_02
AMA Aral SO, Hawkes S, Biddlecom A, et al. Disproportionate Impact of Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2029-2030. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040623_02.
APA Aral, S. O., Hawkes, S., Biddlecom, A., & Padian, N. (2004). Disproportionate Impact of Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2029-2030. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040623_02.

Group B Strep: Successful Model of "From Science to Action"
J. Cory et al.

Infectious Diseases in Childcare Settings
R. Cordell et al.

Infectious Diseases and Sexual Coercion
C. M. Beck-Sague et al.

Using Community Health Workers to Prevent Infectious Diseases in Women
J. Rashid et al.

Infectious Etiologies of Chronic Diseases: Focus on Women [PDF - 134 KB - 2 pages]
S. O’Connor et al.
EID O’Connor S, Fairweather D, Pearce BD, Rasmussen S. Infectious Etiologies of Chronic Diseases: Focus on Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2028-2029. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040623_07
AMA O’Connor S, Fairweather D, Pearce BD, et al. Infectious Etiologies of Chronic Diseases: Focus on Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2028-2029. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040623_07.
APA O’Connor, S., Fairweather, D., Pearce, B. D., & Rasmussen, S. (2004). Infectious Etiologies of Chronic Diseases: Focus on Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2028-2029. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040623_07.

Impact of HIV on Women in the United States [PDF - 131 KB - 2 pages]
H. D. Dean et al.
EID Dean HD, Lee LM, Thompson M, Dannemiller T. Impact of HIV on Women in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2030-2031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040623_08
AMA Dean HD, Lee LM, Thompson M, et al. Impact of HIV on Women in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2030-2031. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040623_08.
APA Dean, H. D., Lee, L. M., Thompson, M., & Dannemiller, T. (2004). Impact of HIV on Women in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2030-2031. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040623_08.

Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer
E. R. Unger and E. Barr
EID Unger ER, Barr E. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2031-2032. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040623_09
AMA Unger ER, Barr E. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2031-2032. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040623_09.
APA Unger, E. R., & Barr, E. (2004). Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2031-2032. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040623_09.

Infectious Diseases and Perinatal Outcomes
U. M. Reddy et al.

Globalization, Women, and Infectious Diseases
G. Kimura et al.

Vaccine Issues for Adult Women
S. Reef et al.

Effective Communication to Prevent Infectious Disease in Women
B. Torres et al.

Women and Infectious Disease—Chronic Disease Interactions
S. O'Connor et al.

Impact of HIV on Women Internationally
L. Ogden et al.
EID Ogden L, Ogden J, Mthembu P, Williamson N. Impact of HIV on Women Internationally. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2032-2033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040624_01
AMA Ogden L, Ogden J, Mthembu P, et al. Impact of HIV on Women Internationally. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2032-2033. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040624_01.
APA Ogden, L., Ogden, J., Mthembu, P., & Williamson, N. (2004). Impact of HIV on Women Internationally. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2032-2033. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040624_01.

Hepatitis B in Women: Domestically and Internationally
C. Weinbaum et al.
EID Weinbaum C, Goldstein S, Subiadur J. Hepatitis B in Women: Domestically and Internationally. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2033-2034. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040624_02
AMA Weinbaum C, Goldstein S, Subiadur J. Hepatitis B in Women: Domestically and Internationally. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2033-2034. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040624_02.
APA Weinbaum, C., Goldstein, S., & Subiadur, J. (2004). Hepatitis B in Women: Domestically and Internationally. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2033-2034. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040624_02.

Refugees, Forced Displacement, and War
T. Bennett et al.
EID Bennett T, Bartlett L, Olatunde OA, Amowitz L. Refugees, Forced Displacement, and War. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2034-2035. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040624_03
AMA Bennett T, Bartlett L, Olatunde OA, et al. Refugees, Forced Displacement, and War. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2034-2035. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040624_03.
APA Bennett, T., Bartlett, L., Olatunde, O. A., & Amowitz, L. (2004). Refugees, Forced Displacement, and War. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2034-2035. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040624_03.

Prevention of Hepatitis C in Women
B. P. Bell et al.
EID Bell BP, Mast EE, Terrault N, Hutin YJ. Prevention of Hepatitis C in Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2035-2036. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040624_04
AMA Bell BP, Mast EE, Terrault N, et al. Prevention of Hepatitis C in Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2035-2036. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040624_04.
APA Bell, B. P., Mast, E. E., Terrault, N., & Hutin, Y. J. (2004). Prevention of Hepatitis C in Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2035-2036. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040624_04.

Infectious Diseases and Maternal Morbidity and Mortality
L. P. Finnegan et al.

International Issues in Immunization
S. L. Cochi et al.

Stigma: Lessons from Women
W. K. Jones et al.

Disparities in Infectious Diseases among Women in Developed Countries
C. Jones et al.

Malaria during Pregnancy: Epidemiology, Current Prevention Strategies, and Future Directions
R. D. Newman et al.

Infectious Diseases, Preterm Delivery, and Infant Outcomes
D. Eschenbach et al.

New Vaccines of Interest to Women
P. Fast et al.

Disparities in Infectious Diseases among Women in Developing Countries
J. Rashid et al.

Immigrant and Border Infectious Disease Concerns for Women
A. Levitt et al.
International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (ICEID)

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases [PDF - 284 KB - 2 pages]
R. V. Tauxe et al.
EID Tauxe RV, Khabbaz RF, Cameron DN, Feinman L. International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2037-2038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040857
AMA Tauxe RV, Khabbaz RF, Cameron DN, et al. International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2037-2038. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040857.
APA Tauxe, R. V., Khabbaz, R. F., Cameron, D. N., & Feinman, L. (2004). International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2037-2038. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040857.

Plagues, Public Health, and Politics [PDF - 112 KB - 5 pages]
J. P. Koplan and M. McPheeters
EID Koplan JP, McPheeters M. Plagues, Public Health, and Politics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2039-2043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040673
AMA Koplan JP, McPheeters M. Plagues, Public Health, and Politics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2039-2043. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040673.
APA Koplan, J. P., & McPheeters, M. (2004). Plagues, Public Health, and Politics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2039-2043. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040673.

Smallpox Models as Policy Tools [PDF - 48 KB - 4 pages]
F. E. McKenzie

Mathematical models can help prepare for and respond to bioterrorism attacks, provided that their strengths and weaknesses are clearly understood. A series of initiatives within the Department of Health and Human Services brought modelers together with biologists and epidemiologists who specialize in smallpox and experts in bioterrorism response and health policy and has led to the parallel development of models with different technical approaches but standardized scenarios, parameter ranges and outcome measures. Cross-disciplinary interactions throughout the process supported the development of models focused on systematically comparing alternate intervention strategies, determining the most important issues in decision-making, and identifying gaps in current knowledge.

EID McKenzie FE. Smallpox Models as Policy Tools. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2044-2047. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040455
AMA McKenzie FE. Smallpox Models as Policy Tools. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2044-2047. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040455.
APA McKenzie, F. E. (2004). Smallpox Models as Policy Tools. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2044-2047. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040455.
ICEID Session Summaries

Healthcare Settings as Amplifiers of Infectious Disease
L. A. Chiarello and M. L. Tapper
EID Chiarello LA, Tapper ML. Healthcare Settings as Amplifiers of Infectious Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2048-2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_01
AMA Chiarello LA, Tapper ML. Healthcare Settings as Amplifiers of Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2048-2049. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_01.
APA Chiarello, L. A., & Tapper, M. L. (2004). Healthcare Settings as Amplifiers of Infectious Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2048-2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_01.

SARS, the First Pandemic of the 21st Century
J. W. LeDuc and M. Barry

Transformation of the Developing World: Socioeconomic Matrix
D. Carroll et al.
EID Carroll D, Gardner P, Kay BA, Osterholm MT, Ryan ET. Transformation of the Developing World: Socioeconomic Matrix. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_03
AMA Carroll D, Gardner P, Kay BA, et al. Transformation of the Developing World: Socioeconomic Matrix. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2049. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_03.
APA Carroll, D., Gardner, P., Kay, B. A., Osterholm, M. T., & Ryan, E. T. (2004). Transformation of the Developing World: Socioeconomic Matrix. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2049. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_03.

HIV, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Resurgence and Response
S. Holmberg et al.

New and Emerging Zoonoses
M. Pappaioanou et al.

New Concepts for Vaccines
T. V. Murphy et al.

HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Antimicrobial Resistance
J. Weber and G. Cassell

Foodborne Diseases in the Global Community
E. Scallan et al.

Mathematical Modeling and Public Policy: Responding to Health Crises
J. Glasser et al.
EID Glasser J, Meltzer MI, Levin B. Mathematical Modeling and Public Policy: Responding to Health Crises. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2050-2051. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_08
AMA Glasser J, Meltzer MI, Levin B. Mathematical Modeling and Public Policy: Responding to Health Crises. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2050-2051. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_08.
APA Glasser, J., Meltzer, M. I., & Levin, B. (2004). Mathematical Modeling and Public Policy: Responding to Health Crises. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2050-2051. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_08.

Public Health Workforce Development
R. Imtiaz and G. Cassell
EID Imtiaz R, Cassell G. Public Health Workforce Development. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2051-2052. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_09
AMA Imtiaz R, Cassell G. Public Health Workforce Development. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2051-2052. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_09.
APA Imtiaz, R., & Cassell, G. (2004). Public Health Workforce Development. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2051-2052. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_09.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
F. C. Tenover and M. L. Pearson
EID Tenover FC, Pearson ML. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2052-2053. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_10
AMA Tenover FC, Pearson ML. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2052-2053. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_10.
APA Tenover, F. C., & Pearson, M. L. (2004). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2052-2053. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_10.

Battling 21st-Century Scourges with a 14th-Century Toolbox
M. S. Cetron and P. Simone
EID Cetron MS, Simone P. Battling 21st-Century Scourges with a 14th-Century Toolbox. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2053-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_12
AMA Cetron MS, Simone P. Battling 21st-Century Scourges with a 14th-Century Toolbox. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2053-2054. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_12.
APA Cetron, M. S., & Simone, P. (2004). Battling 21st-Century Scourges with a 14th-Century Toolbox. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2053-2054. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_12.

Emerging Issues for the Public Health Laboratory
P. Somsel and D. Warnock
EID Somsel P, Warnock D. Emerging Issues for the Public Health Laboratory. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2054-2055. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_13
AMA Somsel P, Warnock D. Emerging Issues for the Public Health Laboratory. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2054-2055. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040797_13.
APA Somsel, P., & Warnock, D. (2004). Emerging Issues for the Public Health Laboratory. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2054-2055. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040797_13.
Volume 10, Number 11—November 2004 - Continued

Perspective

Trachoma Decline and Widespread Use of Antimicrobial Drugs [PDF - 213 KB - 5 pages]
J. D. Chidambaram et al.

Trachoma is disappearing in many parts of the world, even in the absence of specific control programs. Following mass antimicrobial drug treatments for trachoma in western Nepal, the prevalence of trachoma declined far more rapidly than could be attributed to the control program alone. Pharmacy surveys in the same region found that children received more antichlamydial drugs from sources outside the trachoma program than they did from the program itself. We demonstrate that high background antimicrobial drug use may be responsible for much of the observed decline in trachoma and discuss its potential role in eliminating this infectious disease.

EID Chidambaram JD, Bird M, Schiedler V, Fry AM, Porco T, Bhatta RC, et al. Trachoma Decline and Widespread Use of Antimicrobial Drugs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1896-1899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040476
AMA Chidambaram JD, Bird M, Schiedler V, et al. Trachoma Decline and Widespread Use of Antimicrobial Drugs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1896-1899. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040476.
APA Chidambaram, J. D., Bird, M., Schiedler, V., Fry, A. M., Porco, T., Bhatta, R. C....Lietman, T. M. (2004). Trachoma Decline and Widespread Use of Antimicrobial Drugs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1896-1899. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040476.
Research

Topographic Changes in SARS Coronavirus–infected Cells during Late Stages of Infection [PDF - 586 KB - 8 pages]
M. Ng et al.

Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy was used for the first time to view the maturation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus at the cell surface. The surface form of the cells at advanced infection displayed prolific pseudopodia that, in addition to the rest of the plasma membrane, were also active sites of virus release. High magnification of the maturing virus particles showed a rosette appearance with short knoblike spikes under both the scanning electron and atomic force microscopes. The final expulsion step of the maturing virus particles seemed to result in some disruptions to the plasma membrane. The cytoskeletal network along the edge of the infected cells was enhanced and could be involved in transporting and expelling the progeny virus particles. Thickening of the actin filaments at the cell edge provided the bending force to extrude the virus particles.

EID Ng M, Lee J, Leong M, Ling A, Tan H, Ooi E. Topographic Changes in SARS Coronavirus–infected Cells during Late Stages of Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1907-1914. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040195
AMA Ng M, Lee J, Leong M, et al. Topographic Changes in SARS Coronavirus–infected Cells during Late Stages of Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1907-1914. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040195.
APA Ng, M., Lee, J., Leong, M., Ling, A., Tan, H., & Ooi, E. (2004). Topographic Changes in SARS Coronavirus–infected Cells during Late Stages of Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1907-1914. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040195.

Evaluating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs [PDF - 347 KB - 9 pages]
A. V. Taira et al.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated as the primary etiologic agent of cervical cancer. Potential vaccines against high-risk HPV types are in clinical trials. We evaluated vaccination programs with a vaccine against HPV-16 and HPV-18. We developed disease transmission models that estimated HPV prevalence and infection rates for the population overall, by age group, by level of sexual activity within each age group, and by sex. Data were based on clinical trials and published and unpublished sources. An HPV-16/18 vaccine for 12-year-old girls would reduce cohort cervical cancer cases by 61.8%, with a cost-effectiveness ratio of $14,583 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Including male participants in a vaccine rollout would further reduce cervical cancer cases by 2.2% at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $442,039/QALY compared to female-only vaccination. Vaccination against HPV-16 and HPV-18 can be cost-effective, although including male participants in a vaccination program is generally not cost-effective, compared to female-only vaccination.

EID Taira AV, Neukermans CP, Sanders GD. Evaluating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1915-1923. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040222
AMA Taira AV, Neukermans CP, Sanders GD. Evaluating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1915-1923. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040222.
APA Taira, A. V., Neukermans, C. P., & Sanders, G. D. (2004). Evaluating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1915-1923. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040222.

Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Inpatients [PDF - 112 KB - 7 pages]
D. S. Yokoe et al.

We evaluated antimicrobial exposure, discharge diagnoses, or both to identify surgical site infections (SSI). This retrospective cohort study in 13 hospitals involved weighted, random samples of records from 8,739 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures, 7,399 cesarean deliveries, and 6,175 breast procedures. We compared routine surveillance to detection through inpatient antimicrobial exposure (>9 days for CABG, >2 days for cesareans, and >6 days for breast procedures), discharge diagnoses, or both. Together, all methods identified SSI after 7.4% of CABG, 5.0% of cesareans, and 2.0% of breast procedures. Antimicrobial exposure had the highest sensitivity, 88%–91%, compared with routine surveillance, 38%–64%. Diagnosis codes improved sensitivity of detection of antimicrobial exposure after cesareans. Record review confirmed SSI after 31% to 38% of procedures that met antimicrobial surveillance criteria. Sufficient antimicrobial exposure days, together with diagnosis codes for cesareans, identified more postoperative SSI than routine surveillance methods. This screening method was efficient, readily standardized, and suitable for most hospitals.

EID Yokoe DS, Noskin GA, Cunningham SM, Zuccotti G, Plaskett T, Fraser VJ, et al. Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Inpatients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1924-1930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040572
AMA Yokoe DS, Noskin GA, Cunningham SM, et al. Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Inpatients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1924-1930. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040572.
APA Yokoe, D. S., Noskin, G. A., Cunningham, S. M., Zuccotti, G., Plaskett, T., Fraser, V. J....Platt, R. (2004). Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Inpatients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1924-1930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040572.

Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Outpatients [PDF - 132 KB - 7 pages]
A. L. Miner et al.

We investigated using administrative claims data to identify surgical site infections (SSI) after breast surgery and cesarean section. Postoperative diagnosis codes, procedure codes, and pharmacy information were automatically scanned and used to identify claims suggestive of SSI ("indicators") among 426 (22%) of 1,943 breast procedures and 474 (10%) of 4,859 cesarean sections. For 104 breast procedures with indicators explained in available medical records, SSI were confirmed for 37%, and some infection criteria were present for another 27%. Among 204 cesarean sections, SSI were confirmed for 40%, and some criteria were met for 27%. The extrapolated infection rates of 2.8% for breast procedures and 3.1% for cesarean section were similar to those reported by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance program but differ in representing predominantly outpatient infections. Claims data may complement other data sources for identification of surgical site infections following breast surgery and cesarean section.

EID Miner AL, Sands KE, Yokoe DS, Freedman J, Thompson K, Livingston JM, et al. Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Outpatients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1931-1937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040784
AMA Miner AL, Sands KE, Yokoe DS, et al. Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Outpatients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1931-1937. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040784.
APA Miner, A. L., Sands, K. E., Yokoe, D. S., Freedman, J., Thompson, K., Livingston, J. M....Platt, R. (2004). Enhanced Identification of Postoperative Infections among Outpatients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1931-1937. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040784.

Histopathologic Improvement with Lymphedema Management, Léogâne, Haiti [PDF - 381 KB - 9 pages]
S. F. Wilson et al.

In countries where bancroftian filariasis is endemic, lymphedema of the leg is a public health problem, particularly for women, who are disproportionately affected. We investigated the effect of basic lymphedema management (hygiene, skin care, and lower limb movement and elevation) on the histologic features of lymphedema. A total of 118 skin-punch biopsies were collected from the legs of 91 patients enrolled in a lymphedema treatment clinic in Léogâne, Haiti. Follow-up biopsies were collected from 27 patients ≈12 months later. Keratinocyte hyperproliferation, condensed dermal collagen, and mononuclear perivascular infiltrate increased with lymphedema stage, which suggested progressive chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Follow-up biopsies showed reductions in perivascular mononuclear infiltrate in the superficial dermis (41% decrease in prevalence), perivascular fibrosis in the deep dermis (58% decrease), and periadnexal mononuclear infiltrate (53% decrease). These data suggest that the clinical improvement commonly observed with basic lymphedema management has a histologic basis.

EID Wilson SF, Guarner J, Valme AL, Louis-Charles J, Jones TL, Addiss DG. Histopathologic Improvement with Lymphedema Management, Léogâne, Haiti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1938-1946. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040548
AMA Wilson SF, Guarner J, Valme AL, et al. Histopathologic Improvement with Lymphedema Management, Léogâne, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1938-1946. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040548.
APA Wilson, S. F., Guarner, J., Valme, A. L., Louis-Charles, J., Jones, T. L., & Addiss, D. G. (2004). Histopathologic Improvement with Lymphedema Management, Léogâne, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1938-1946. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040548.
Policy Review

Public Health Interventions and SARS Spread, 2003 [PDF - 202 KB - 7 pages]
D. M. Bell

The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was contained largely through traditional public health interventions, such as finding and isolating patients, quarantining close contacts, and enhanced infection control. The independent effectiveness of measures to “increase social distance” and wearing masks in public places requires further evaluation. Limited data exist on the effectiveness of providing health information to travelers. Entry screening of travelers through health declarations or thermal scanning at international borders had little documented effect on detecting SARS cases; exit screening appeared slightly more effective. The value of border screening in deterring travel by ill persons and in building public confidence remains unquantified. Interventions to control global epidemics should be based on expert advice from the World Health Organization and national authorities. In the case of SARS, interventions at a country’s borders should not detract from efforts to identify and isolate infected persons within the country, monitor or quarantine their contacts, and strengthen infection control in healthcare settings.

EID Bell DM. Public Health Interventions and SARS Spread, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1900-1906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040729
AMA Bell DM. Public Health Interventions and SARS Spread, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1900-1906. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040729.
APA Bell, D. M. (2004). Public Health Interventions and SARS Spread, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1900-1906. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040729.
Dispatches

Nucleocapsid Protein as Early Diagnostic Marker for SARS [PDF - 280 KB - 3 pages]
X. Che et al.

Serum samples from 317 patients with patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were tested for the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-associated coronavirus, with sensitivities of 94% and 78% for the first 5 days and 6–10 days after onset, respectively. The specificity was 99.9%. N protein can be used as an early diagnostic maker for SARS.

EID Che X, Hao W, Wang Y, Di B, Yin K, Xu Y, et al. Nucleocapsid Protein as Early Diagnostic Marker for SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1947-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040516
AMA Che X, Hao W, Wang Y, et al. Nucleocapsid Protein as Early Diagnostic Marker for SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1947-1949. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040516.
APA Che, X., Hao, W., Wang, Y., Di, B., Yin, K., Xu, Y....Woo, P. (2004). Nucleocapsid Protein as Early Diagnostic Marker for SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1947-1949. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040516.

Human Infection Caused by Clostridium hathewayi [PDF - 348 KB - 3 pages]
S. Elsayed and K. Zhang

We describe a 27-year-old man with acute cholecystitis, hepatic abscess, and bacteremia caused by Clostridium hathewayi, a newly described gram-negative, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. This report is the first of human infection caused by this microorganism.

EID Elsayed S, Zhang K. Human Infection Caused by Clostridium hathewayi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1950-1952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040006
AMA Elsayed S, Zhang K. Human Infection Caused by Clostridium hathewayi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1950-1952. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040006.
APA Elsayed, S., & Zhang, K. (2004). Human Infection Caused by Clostridium hathewayi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1950-1952. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040006.

Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa [PDF - 232 KB - 4 pages]
C. Laurent et al.

We found a high seroprevalence of HIV among young women in a commercial logging area in Cameroon. The vulnerability of these young women could be related to commercial logging and the social and economic networks it induces. The environmental changes related to this industry in Equatorial Africa may facilitate HIV dissemination.

EID Laurent C, Bourgeois A, Mpoudi M, Butel C, Peeters M, Mpoudi-Ngolé E, et al. Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1953-1956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040180
AMA Laurent C, Bourgeois A, Mpoudi M, et al. Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1953-1956. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040180.
APA Laurent, C., Bourgeois, A., Mpoudi, M., Butel, C., Peeters, M., Mpoudi-Ngolé, E....Delaporte, E. (2004). Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1953-1956. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040180.

Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C [PDF - 244 KB - 3 pages]
A. Petrucca et al.

We report a case of a vaginal infection caused by a strain of Burkholderia cenocepacia. The strain was isolated from vaginal swab specimens from a 68-year-old woman with smoldering myeloma and chronic hepatitis C virus infection who was hospitalized for abdominal abscess. Treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam eliminated B. cenocepacia infection and vaginal symptoms

EID Petrucca A, Cipriani P, Sessa R, Teggi A, Pustorino R, Santapaola D, et al. Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1957-1959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040127
AMA Petrucca A, Cipriani P, Sessa R, et al. Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1957-1959. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040127.
APA Petrucca, A., Cipriani, P., Sessa, R., Teggi, A., Pustorino, R., Santapaola, D....Nicoletti, M. (2004). Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1957-1959. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040127.

Decreased Levofloxacin Susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae in Children, Hong Kong
P. L. Ho et al.

Among 563 strains of Haemophilus influenzae from young children in Hong Kong, 5 (0.9%) had decreased susceptibility to quinolones. The five strains had a Ser-84-Lys or Asp-88-Asn substitution in GyrA. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the isolates are genetically diverse.

EID Ho PL, Chow KH, Mak GC, Tsang KW, Lau YL, Ho P, et al. Decreased Levofloxacin Susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae in Children, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1960-1962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040055
AMA Ho PL, Chow KH, Mak GC, et al. Decreased Levofloxacin Susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae in Children, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1960-1962. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040055.
APA Ho, P. L., Chow, K. H., Mak, G. C., Tsang, K. W., Lau, Y. L., Ho, P....Chiu, S. S. (2004). Decreased Levofloxacin Susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae in Children, Hong Kong. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1960-1962. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040055.
Letters

Tuberculosis and Sexually Transmitted Infections [PDF - 27 KB - 2 pages]
N. J. Nagelkerke et al.
EID Nagelkerke NJ, de Vlas SJ, MacDonald KS, Rieder HL. Tuberculosis and Sexually Transmitted Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2055-2056. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.030785
AMA Nagelkerke NJ, de Vlas SJ, MacDonald KS, et al. Tuberculosis and Sexually Transmitted Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2055-2056. doi:10.3201/eid1011.030785.
APA Nagelkerke, N. J., de Vlas, S. J., MacDonald, K. S., & Rieder, H. L. (2004). Tuberculosis and Sexually Transmitted Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2055-2056. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.030785.

Leptotrichia amnionii and the Female Reproductive Tract [PDF - 29 KB - 2 pages]
V. A. Gundi et al.
EID Gundi VA, Desbriere R, La Scola B. Leptotrichia amnionii and the Female Reproductive Tract. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2056-2057. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.031019
AMA Gundi VA, Desbriere R, La Scola B. Leptotrichia amnionii and the Female Reproductive Tract. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2056-2057. doi:10.3201/eid1011.031019.
APA Gundi, V. A., Desbriere, R., & La Scola, B. (2004). Leptotrichia amnionii and the Female Reproductive Tract. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2056-2057. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.031019.

Cholera in Mozambique, Variant of Vibrio cholerae [PDF - 82 KB - 2 pages]
M. Ansaruzzaman et al.
EID Ansaruzzaman M, Bhuiyan N, Nair GB, Sack DA, Lucas M, Deen JL, et al. Cholera in Mozambique, Variant of Vibrio cholerae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2057-2059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040682
AMA Ansaruzzaman M, Bhuiyan N, Nair GB, et al. Cholera in Mozambique, Variant of Vibrio cholerae. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2057-2059. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040682.
APA Ansaruzzaman, M., Bhuiyan, N., Nair, G. B., Sack, D. A., Lucas, M., Deen, J. L....Chaignat, C. (2004). Cholera in Mozambique, Variant of Vibrio cholerae. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2057-2059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040682.
Another Dimension

The Woman at the Dig [PDF - 42 KB - 1 page]
L. Dangel
EID Dangel L. The Woman at the Dig. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.ad1011
AMA Dangel L. The Woman at the Dig. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):1964. doi:10.3201/eid1011.ad1011.
APA Dangel, L. (2004). The Woman at the Dig. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 1964. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.ad1011.
Books and Media

Vaccines: Preventing Disease Protecting Health [PDF - 23 KB - 1 page]
M. A. Strassburg
EID Strassburg MA. Vaccines: Preventing Disease Protecting Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2060. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040728
AMA Strassburg MA. Vaccines: Preventing Disease Protecting Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2060. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040728.
APA Strassburg, M. A. (2004). Vaccines: Preventing Disease Protecting Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2060. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040728.
About the Cover

Scientific Discovery and Women’s Health [PDF - 128 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Scientific Discovery and Women’s Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2062-2063. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.ac1011
AMA Potter P. Scientific Discovery and Women’s Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2062-2063. doi:10.3201/eid1011.ac1011.
APA Potter, P. (2004). Scientific Discovery and Women’s Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2062-2063. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.ac1011.
Conference Summaries

National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria [PDF - 46 KB - 1 page]
C. N. Holmes and T. M. Chiller
EID Holmes CN, Chiller TM. National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2061. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040665
AMA Holmes CN, Chiller TM. National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2061. doi:10.3201/eid1011.040665.
APA Holmes, C. N., & Chiller, T. M. (2004). National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2061. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.040665.
Corrections

Correction, vol. 10, no. 10 [PDF - 22 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction, vol. 10, no. 10. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(11):2059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.c11011
AMA Correction, vol. 10, no. 10. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(11):2059. doi:10.3201/eid1011.c11011.
APA (2004). Correction, vol. 10, no. 10. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 2059. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1011.c11011.
Page created: January 04, 2013
Page updated: January 04, 2013
Page reviewed: January 04, 2013
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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