Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 11, Number 11—November 2005

West Nile Virus Epidemic, Northeast Ohio, 2002

Anna M. Mandalakas*†Comments to Author , Christopher Kippes†, Joseph Sedransk*, Jeffery R. Kile*, Asha Garg*, John McLeod†, Richard L. Berry‡, and Anthony A. Marfin§
Author affiliations: *Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; †Cuyahoga County Board of Health, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; ‡Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, Ohio, USA; §Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

Main Article

Table 1

WNV seroprevalence*

Seroprevalence No. positive/no. tested Weighted % (95% CI)
Overall 34/1,209 1.9 (0.8–4.6)
5–17 y 4/168 6.5 (4.3–9.5)
18–64 y 25/790 1.3 (0.4–4.5)†
>65 y 5/219 1.4 (0.4–4.5)‡
More human illnesses reported; higher MIR(stratum 1)§¶ 16/463 2.5 (0.6–9.2)
Fewer human illnesses reported; varying MIR (stratum 2)# 7/453 1.5 (0.2–4.4)
No human illnesses reported; varying MIR (stratum 3)** 11/293 3.3 (0.4–23.9)

*WNV, West Nile virus; CI, confidence interval; MIR, minimum infection rate.
†Significant difference between 5- to 17-year-old and 18- to 64-year-old patients (p<0.02).
‡Significant difference between 5- to 17-year-old and >65-year-old patients (p<0.01).
§Reference 9.
¶Stratum 1 included neighborhoods with at least 9 reported human cases, a WNV case rate >4.5/10,000, and mosquito MIR >15/1,000.
#Stratum 2 included neighborhoods with at least 1 reported human case, a WNV case rate <4.5/10,000, and varying levels of MIR (0–54/1,000).
**Stratum 3 included neighborhoods with no known human cases and varying levels of MIR.

Main Article

  1. Sejvar  JJ, Haddad  MB, Tierney  BC, Campbell  GL, Marfin  AA, Van Gerpen  JA, Neurologic manifestations and outcome of West Nile virus infection. JAMA. 2003;290:5115. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Investigations of West Nile virus infections in recipients of blood transfusions. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:9734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Intrauterine West Nile virus infection—New York, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:11356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Possible West Nile virus transmission to an infant through breast-feeding—Michigan, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:8778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Petersen  LR, Hayes  EB. Westward ho?—The spread of West Nile virus. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:22579. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. O'Leary  D, Marfin  A, Montgomery  S, Kipp  A, Lehman  J, Biggerstaff  B, The epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States, 2002. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2004;4:6170. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Mostashari  F, Bunning  ML, Kitsutani  PT, Singer  DA, Nash  D, Cooper  MJ, Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet. 2001;358:2614. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Tsai  T, Popovici  F, Cernescu  C, Campbell  G, Nedelcu  N. West Nile encephalitis epidemic in southeastern Romania. Lancet. 1998;352:76771. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Le  CT. A new estimator for infection rates using pools of variable size. Am J Epidemiol. 1981;114:1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Serosurveys for West Nile virus infection—New York and Connecticut counties, 2000. JAMA. 2001;285:7278. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Prince  HE, Hogrefe  WR. Detection of West Nile virus (WNV)–specific immunoglobulin M in a reference laboratory setting during the 2002 WNV season in the United States. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:7648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Martin  DA, Muth  DA, Brown  T, Johnson  AJ, Karabatsos  N, Roehrig  JT. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:18236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Johnson  AJ, Martin  DA, Karabatsos  N, Roehrig  JT. Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:182731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cochran  W. 9A.7. In: Sampling techniques. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley; 1977.
  15. Hayes  EB, O'Leary  DR. West Nile virus infection: a pediatric perspective. Pediatrics. 2004;113:137581. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: February 17, 2012
Page updated: February 17, 2012
Page reviewed: February 17, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.