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Issue Cover for Volume 11, Number 11—November 2005

Volume 11, Number 11—November 2005

[PDF - 6.32 MB - 163 pages]

Perspective

Emergence of Toscana Virus in Europe [PDF - 216 KB - 7 pages]
R. N. Charrel et al.

Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropodborne virus first identified in 1971 from the sandfly Phlebotomus perniciosus in central Italy. Many case reports in travelers and clinical research and epidemiologic studies conducted around the Mediterranean region have shown that TOSV has a tropism for the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major cause of meningitis and encephalitis in countries in which it circulates. In central Italy, TOSV is the most frequent cause of meningitis from May to October, far exceeding enteroviruses. In other northern Mediterranean countries, TOSV is among the 3 most prevalent viruses associated with meningitis during the warm seasons. Therefore, TOSV must be considered an emerging pathogen. Here, we review the epidemiology of TOSV in Europe and determine questions that should be addressed in future studies. Despite increasing evidence of its major role in medicine as an emerging cause of CNS infections, TOSV remains an unstudied pathogen, and few physicians are aware of its potential to cause CNS infections.

EID Charrel RN, Gallian P, Navarro-Marí J, Nicoletti L, Papa A, Sánchez-Seco M, et al. Emergence of Toscana Virus in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1657-1663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050869
AMA Charrel RN, Gallian P, Navarro-Marí J, et al. Emergence of Toscana Virus in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1657-1663. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050869.
APA Charrel, R. N., Gallian, P., Navarro-Marí, J., Nicoletti, L., Papa, A., Sánchez-Seco, M....de Lamballerie, X. (2005). Emergence of Toscana Virus in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1657-1663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050869.
Synopses

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004 [PDF - 662 KB - 9 pages]
T. Tiensin et al.

In January 2004, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was first confirmed in poultry and humans in Thailand. Control measures, e.g., culling poultry flocks, restricting poultry movement, and improving hygiene, were implemented. Poultry populations in 1,417 villages in 60 of 76 provinces were affected in 2004. A total of 83% of infected flocks confirmed by laboratories were backyard chickens (56%) or ducks (27%). Outbreaks were concentrated in the Central, the southern part of the Northern, and Eastern Regions of Thailand, which are wetlands, water reservoirs, and dense poultry areas. More than 62 million birds were either killed by HPAI viruses or culled. H5N1 virus from poultry caused 17 human cases and 12 deaths in Thailand; a number of domestic cats, captive tigers, and leopards also died of the H5N1 virus. In 2005, the epidemic is ongoing in Thailand.

EID Tiensin T, Chaitaweesub P, Songserm T, Chaisingh A, Hoonsuwan W, Buranathai C, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1664-1672. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050608
AMA Tiensin T, Chaitaweesub P, Songserm T, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1664-1672. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050608.
APA Tiensin, T., Chaitaweesub, P., Songserm, T., Chaisingh, A., Hoonsuwan, W., Buranathai, C....Stegeman, A. (2005). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1664-1672. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050608.

Coltiviruses and Seadornaviruses in North America, Europe, and Asia [PDF - 223 KB - 7 pages]
H. Attoui et al.

Coltiviruses are tickborne viruses of the genus Coltivirus. The type species, Colorado tick fever virus (from North America), has been isolated from patients with flulike syndromes, meningitis, encephalitis, and other severe complications. Another coltivirus, Eyach virus, has been isolated from ticks in France and Germany and incriminated in febrile illnesses and neurologic syndromes. Seadornaviruses are endemic in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia and China. The prototype virus of the genus, Banna virus (BAV), has been isolated from many mosquito species, humans with encephalitis, pigs, and cattle. Two other seadornaviruses, Kadipiro and Liao Ning, were isolated only from mosquitoes. The epidemiology of seadornaviruses remains poorly documented. Evidence suggests that BAV is responsible for encephalitis in humans. Infection with BAV may be underreported because it circulates in regions with a high incidence of Japanese encephalitis and could be misdiagnosed as this disease.

EID Attoui H, Jaafar F, de Micco P, de Lamballerie X. Coltiviruses and Seadornaviruses in North America, Europe, and Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1673-1679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050868
AMA Attoui H, Jaafar F, de Micco P, et al. Coltiviruses and Seadornaviruses in North America, Europe, and Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1673-1679. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050868.
APA Attoui, H., Jaafar, F., de Micco, P., & de Lamballerie, X. (2005). Coltiviruses and Seadornaviruses in North America, Europe, and Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1673-1679. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050868.
Research

Cervical Human Papillomavirus Screening among Older Women [PDF - 83 KB - 6 pages]
M. J. Grainge et al.

Rates of acquisition and clearance of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) during a 3-year period in women 51 years of age were compared with rates in younger women to provide data on cervical screening for women >50 years of age. Paired, cytologically negative, archived cervical smears taken 3 years apart from 710 women in Nottingham, United Kingdom, were retrieved and tested for HPV infection with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with GP5+/6+ primers. Seventy-one (21.3%) of 333 women 51 years of age who were HPV negative at baseline were positive 3 years later. This percentage was higher than the corresponding acquisition rates among women 21 (15.2%), 31 (14.1%), and 41 (13.3%) years of age, although these differences were not significant. This retrospective study shows that HPV-negative women >50 years of age can acquire HPV and, therefore, require cervical screening.

EID Grainge MJ, Seth R, Guo L, Neal KR, Coupland C, Vryenhoef P, et al. Cervical Human Papillomavirus Screening among Older Women. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1680-1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050575
AMA Grainge MJ, Seth R, Guo L, et al. Cervical Human Papillomavirus Screening among Older Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1680-1685. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050575.
APA Grainge, M. J., Seth, R., Guo, L., Neal, K. R., Coupland, C., Vryenhoef, P....Jenkins, D. (2005). Cervical Human Papillomavirus Screening among Older Women. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1680-1685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050575.

Cryptococcus gattii in AIDS Patients, Southern California [PDF - 255 KB - 7 pages]
S. Chaturvedi et al.

Cryptococcus isolates from AIDS patients in southern California were characterized by molecular analyses. Pheromone MFα1 and MFa1 gene fragments were polymerase chain reaction–amplified with fluorescently labeled primers and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) on DNA analyzer. CE–fragment-length analyses (CE-FLAs) and CE–single-strand conformation polymorphisms (CE-SSCPs) were used to determine Cryptococcus gattii (Cg), C. neoformans (Cn) varieties neoformans (CnVN) and grubii (CnVG), mating types, and hybrids. Corroborative tests carried out in parallel included growth on specialized media and serotyping with a commercial kit. All 276 clinical strains tested as haploid MATα by CE-FLA. CE-SSCP analyses of MFα1 showed 219 (79.3%) CnVG, 23 (8.3%) CnVN, and 34 (12.3%) Cg isolates. CE-FLA and CE-SSCP are promising tools for high-throughput screening of Cryptococcus isolates. The high prevalence of Cg was noteworthy, in view of its sporadic reports from AIDS patients in North America and its recent emergence as a primary pathogen on Vancouver Island, Canada.

EID Chaturvedi S, Dyavaiah M, Larsen RA, Chaturvedi V. Cryptococcus gattii in AIDS Patients, Southern California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1686-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.040875
AMA Chaturvedi S, Dyavaiah M, Larsen RA, et al. Cryptococcus gattii in AIDS Patients, Southern California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1686-1692. doi:10.3201/eid1111.040875.
APA Chaturvedi, S., Dyavaiah, M., Larsen, R. A., & Chaturvedi, V. (2005). Cryptococcus gattii in AIDS Patients, Southern California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1686-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.040875.

Rift Valley Fever in Small Ruminants, Senegal, 2003 [PDF - 225 KB - 8 pages]
V. Chevalier et al.

During the 2003 rainy season, the clinical and serologic incidence of Rift Valley fever was assessed in small ruminant herds living around temporary ponds located in the semi-arid region of the Ferlo, Senegal. No outbreak was detected by the surveillance system. Serologic incidence was estimated at 2.9% (95% confidence interval 1.0–8.7) and occurred in 5 of 7 ponds with large variations in the observed incidence rate (0%–20.3%). The location of ponds in the Ferlo Valley and small ponds were correlated with higher serologic incidence (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.005, respectively). Rift Valley fever surveillance should be improved to allow early detection of virus activity. Ruminant vaccination programs should be prepared to confront the foreseeable higher risks for future epidemics of this disease.

EID Chevalier V, Lancelot R, Thiongane Y, Sall B, Diaité A, Mondet B. Rift Valley Fever in Small Ruminants, Senegal, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1693-1700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050193
AMA Chevalier V, Lancelot R, Thiongane Y, et al. Rift Valley Fever in Small Ruminants, Senegal, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1693-1700. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050193.
APA Chevalier, V., Lancelot, R., Thiongane, Y., Sall, B., Diaité, A., & Mondet, B. (2005). Rift Valley Fever in Small Ruminants, Senegal, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1693-1700. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050193.

Toscana Virus in Spain [PDF - 214 KB - 7 pages]
S. Sanbonmatsu-Gámez et al.

Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture or reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction from a region of the L gene. Nucleotide sequence homology was 99%–100% in TOSV from vectors and patients and 80%–81% compared to the Italian strain ISS Phl.3. Sequencing of the N gene of TOSV isolates from patients and vectors indicated 87%–88% and 100% homology at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, compared to the Italian strain. These findings demonstrate the circulation of at least 2 different lineages of TOSV in the Mediterranean basin, the Italian lineage and the Spanish lineage.

EID Sanbonmatsu-Gámez S, Pérez-Ruiz M, Collao X, Sánchez-Seco M, Morillas-Márquez F, de la Rosa-Fraile M, et al. Toscana Virus in Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1701-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050851
AMA Sanbonmatsu-Gámez S, Pérez-Ruiz M, Collao X, et al. Toscana Virus in Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1701-1707. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050851.
APA Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, S., Pérez-Ruiz, M., Collao, X., Sánchez-Seco, M., Morillas-Márquez, F., de la Rosa-Fraile, M....Tenorio, A. (2005). Toscana Virus in Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1701-1707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050851.

Tickborne Pathogen Detection, Western Siberia, Russia [PDF - 275 KB - 8 pages]
V. A. Rar et al.

Ixodes persulcatus (n = 125) and Dermacentor reticulatus (n = 84) ticks from Western Siberia, Russia, were tested for infection with Borrelia, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia, Bartonella, and Babesia spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays with subsequent sequencing. I. persulcatus ticks were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (37.6% ± 4.3% [standard deviation]), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4% ± 1.4%), Ehrlichia muris (8.8% ± 2.5%), and Bartonella spp. (37.6% ± 4.3%). D. reticulatus ticks contained DNA of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (3.6% ± 2.0%), Bartonella spp. (21.4% ± 4.5%), and Babesia canis canis (3.6% ± 2.0%). Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and their mixed infections were observed among I. persulcatus, whereas B. garinii NT29 DNA was seen in samples from D. reticulatus. Among the I. persulcatus ticks studied, no Babesia spp. were observed, whereas B. canis canis was the single subspecies found in D. reticulatus.

EID Rar VA, Fomenko NV, Dobrotvorsky AK, Livanova NN, Rudakova SA, Fedorov EG, et al. Tickborne Pathogen Detection, Western Siberia, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1708-1715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.041195
AMA Rar VA, Fomenko NV, Dobrotvorsky AK, et al. Tickborne Pathogen Detection, Western Siberia, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1708-1715. doi:10.3201/eid1111.041195.
APA Rar, V. A., Fomenko, N. V., Dobrotvorsky, A. K., Livanova, N. N., Rudakova, S. A., Fedorov, E. G....Morozova, O. V. (2005). Tickborne Pathogen Detection, Western Siberia, Russia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1708-1715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.041195.

Norovirus Outbreaks from Drinking Water [PDF - 139 KB - 6 pages]
L. Maunula et al.

As part of an intensified monitoring program for foodborne disease outbreaks in Finland, waterborne outbreaks were investigated for viruses. The diagnostic procedure included analysis of patients' stool samples by electron microscopy and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for noroviruses and astroviruses. When these test results were positive for a virus, the water sample was analyzed. Virus concentration was based on positively charged filters from 1-L samples. Of the total 41 waterborne outbreaks reported during the observation period (1998–2003), samples from 28 outbreaks were available for analysis. As judged by RT-PCR results from patient samples, noroviruses caused 18 outbreaks. In 10 outbreaks, the water sample also yielded a norovirus. In all but 1 instance, the amplicon sequence was identical to that recovered from the patients. The ubiquity of waterborne norovirus outbreaks calls for measures to monitor water for viruses.

EID Maunula L, Miettinen IT, von Bonsdorff C. Norovirus Outbreaks from Drinking Water. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1716-1721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050487
AMA Maunula L, Miettinen IT, von Bonsdorff C. Norovirus Outbreaks from Drinking Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1716-1721. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050487.
APA Maunula, L., Miettinen, I. T., & von Bonsdorff, C. (2005). Norovirus Outbreaks from Drinking Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1716-1721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050487.

Typing African Relapsing Fever Spirochetes [PDF - 198 KB - 8 pages]
J. Scott et al.

Relapsing fever Borrelia spp. challenge microbiologic typing because they possess segmented genomes that maintain essential genes on large linear plasmids. Antigenic variation further complicates typing. Intergenic spacer (IGS, between 16S–23S genes) heterogeneity provides resolution among Lyme disease–associated and some relapsing fever spirochetes. We used an IGS fragment for typing East African relapsing fever Borrelia spp. Borrelia recurrentis and their louse vectors showed 2 sequence types, while 4 B. duttonii and their tick vectors had 4 types. IGS typing was unable to discriminate between the tick- and louseborne forms of disease. B. crocidurae, also present in Africa, was clearly resolved from the B. recurrentis/B. duttonii complex. IGS analysis of ticks showed relapsing fever Borrelia spp. and a unique clade, distant from those associated with relapsing fever, possibly equivalent to a novel species in ticks from this region. Clinical significance of this spirochete is undetermined.

EID Scott J, Wright D, Cutler S. Typing African Relapsing Fever Spirochetes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1722-1729. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050483
AMA Scott J, Wright D, Cutler S. Typing African Relapsing Fever Spirochetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1722-1729. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050483.
APA Scott, J., Wright, D., & Cutler, S. (2005). Typing African Relapsing Fever Spirochetes. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1722-1729. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050483.

Neutralizing Antibody Response and SARS Severity [PDF - 351 KB - 8 pages]
M. Ho et al.

Using the Taiwan nationwide laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) database, we analyzed neutralizing antibody in relation to clinical outcomes. With a linear mixed model, neutralizing antibody titer was shown to peak between week 5 and week 8 after onset and to decline thereafter, with a half-life of 6.4 weeks. Patients with a longer illness showed a lower neutralizing antibody response than patients with a shorter illness duration (p = 0.008). When early responders were compared with most patients, who seroconverted on and after week 3 of illness, the small proportion (17.4%) of early responders (antibody detectable within 2 weeks) had a higher death rate (29.6% vs. 7.8%) (Fisher exact test, p = 0.004), had a shorter survival time of <2 weeks (Fisher exact test, p = 0.013), and were more likely to be > 60 years of age (Fisher exact test, p = 0.01). Our findings have implications for understanding the pathogenesis of SARS and for SARS vaccine research and development.

EID Ho M, Chen W, Chen H, Lin S, Wang M, Di J, et al. Neutralizing Antibody Response and SARS Severity. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1730-1737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.040659
AMA Ho M, Chen W, Chen H, et al. Neutralizing Antibody Response and SARS Severity. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1730-1737. doi:10.3201/eid1111.040659.
APA Ho, M., Chen, W., Chen, H., Lin, S., Wang, M., Di, J....Yang, J. (2005). Neutralizing Antibody Response and SARS Severity. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1730-1737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.040659.
Dispatches

Respiratory Infections during SARS Outbreak, Hong Kong, 2003 [PDF - 296 KB - 4 pages]
J. Lo et al.

The effect of community hygienic measures during the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong was studied by comparing the proportion of positive specimens of various respiratory viruses in 2003 with those from 1998 to 2002. Community hygienic measures significantly reduced the incidence of various respiratory viral infections.

EID Lo J, Tsang T, Leung Y, Yeung E, Wu T, Lim W. Respiratory Infections during SARS Outbreak, Hong Kong, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1738-1741. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050729
AMA Lo J, Tsang T, Leung Y, et al. Respiratory Infections during SARS Outbreak, Hong Kong, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1738-1741. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050729.
APA Lo, J., Tsang, T., Leung, Y., Yeung, E., Wu, T., & Lim, W. (2005). Respiratory Infections during SARS Outbreak, Hong Kong, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1738-1741. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050729.

Bartonella quintana and Rickettsia felis in Gabon [PDF - 129 KB - 3 pages]
J. Rolain et al.

We detected Rickettsia felis DNA in Ctenocephalides felis and Bartonella quintana DNA in 3 Pulex irritans fleas taken from a pet Cercopithecus cephus monkey in Gabon, sub-Saharan Africa. This is the first report of B. quintana in the human flea.

EID Rolain J, Bourry O, Davoust B, Raoult D. Bartonella quintana and Rickettsia felis in Gabon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1742-1744. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050861
AMA Rolain J, Bourry O, Davoust B, et al. Bartonella quintana and Rickettsia felis in Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1742-1744. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050861.
APA Rolain, J., Bourry, O., Davoust, B., & Raoult, D. (2005). Bartonella quintana and Rickettsia felis in Gabon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1742-1744. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050861.

African Trypanosomiasis Gambiense, Italy [PDF - 81 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Bisoffi et al.

African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense has not been reported in Italy. We report 2 cases diagnosed in the summer of 2004. Theses cases suggest an increased risk for expatriates working in trypanosomiasis-endemic countries. Travel medicine clinics should be increasingly aware of this potentially fatal disease.

EID Bisoffi Z, Beltrame A, Monteiro G, Arzese A, Marocco S, Rorato G, et al. African Trypanosomiasis Gambiense, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1745-1747. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050649
AMA Bisoffi Z, Beltrame A, Monteiro G, et al. African Trypanosomiasis Gambiense, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1745-1747. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050649.
APA Bisoffi, Z., Beltrame, A., Monteiro, G., Arzese, A., Marocco, S., Rorato, G....Viale, P. (2005). African Trypanosomiasis Gambiense, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1745-1747. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050649.

Australian Public and Smallpox [PDF - 90 KB - 3 pages]
D. N. Durrheim et al.

A national survey of 1,001 Australians found that most were concerned about a bioterrorist attack and were ill-informed about smallpox prevention and response. Since general practitioners were commonly identified as the initial point of care, they should become a focus of bioterrorism response planning in Australia.

EID Durrheim DN, Muller R, Saunders V, Speare R, Lowe JJ. Australian Public and Smallpox. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1748-1750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.041129
AMA Durrheim DN, Muller R, Saunders V, et al. Australian Public and Smallpox. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1748-1750. doi:10.3201/eid1111.041129.
APA Durrheim, D. N., Muller, R., Saunders, V., Speare, R., & Lowe, J. J. (2005). Australian Public and Smallpox. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1748-1750. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.041129.

Evaluation of West Nile Virus Education Campaign [PDF - 133 KB - 3 pages]
E. Averett et al.

We evaluated the 2003 Kansas West Nile virus public education campaign. Awareness was widespread but compliance was low. Spanish-speaking persons were poorly informed. Relevant factors included population segment variability, campaign content, media choice, and materials delivery methods.

EID Averett E, Neuberger JS, Hansen G, Fox MH. Evaluation of West Nile Virus Education Campaign. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1751-1753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050363
AMA Averett E, Neuberger JS, Hansen G, et al. Evaluation of West Nile Virus Education Campaign. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1751-1753. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050363.
APA Averett, E., Neuberger, J. S., Hansen, G., & Fox, M. H. (2005). Evaluation of West Nile Virus Education Campaign. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1751-1753. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050363.

Long-term Death Rates, West Nile Virus Epidemic, Israel, 2000 [PDF - 200 KB - 4 pages]
M. S. Green et al.

We studied the 2-year death rate of 246 adults discharged from hospital after experiencing acute West Nile Virus infection in Israel during 2000. The age- and sex-adjusted death rates were significantly higher than in the general population. This excess was greater for men. Significant adverse prognostic factors were age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and dementia.

EID Green MS, Weinberger M, Ben-Ezer J, Bin H, Mendelson E, Gandacu D, et al. Long-term Death Rates, West Nile Virus Epidemic, Israel, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1754-1757. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.040941
AMA Green MS, Weinberger M, Ben-Ezer J, et al. Long-term Death Rates, West Nile Virus Epidemic, Israel, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1754-1757. doi:10.3201/eid1111.040941.
APA Green, M. S., Weinberger, M., Ben-Ezer, J., Bin, H., Mendelson, E., Gandacu, D....Chowers, M. Y. (2005). Long-term Death Rates, West Nile Virus Epidemic, Israel, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1754-1757. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.040941.

Vibrio cholerae Pathogenic Clones [PDF - 122 KB - 3 pages]
A. Salim et al.

We resolved the relationships between 2 pandemic clones of Vibrio cholerae. Using 26 housekeeping genes, we showed that the US Gulf clone, the Australian clone, and 3 El Tor strains isolated before the seventh pandemic were related to the seventh pandemic clone. The sixth pandemic clone was well separated from them.

EID Salim A, Lan R, Reeves PR. Vibrio cholerae Pathogenic Clones. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1758-1760. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.041170
AMA Salim A, Lan R, Reeves PR. Vibrio cholerae Pathogenic Clones. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1758-1760. doi:10.3201/eid1111.041170.
APA Salim, A., Lan, R., & Reeves, P. R. (2005). Vibrio cholerae Pathogenic Clones. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1758-1760. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.041170.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan [PDF - 143 KB - 3 pages]
F. Chen et al.

We found a virulent closely related clone (Panton-Valentine leukocidin–positive, SCCmec V:ST59) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in inpatients and outpatients in Taiwan. The isolates were found mostly in wounds but were also detected in blood, ear, respiratory, and other specimens; all were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

EID Chen F, Lauderdale T, Huang I, Lo H, Lai J, Wang H, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1761-1763. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050367
AMA Chen F, Lauderdale T, Huang I, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1761-1763. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050367.
APA Chen, F., Lauderdale, T., Huang, I., Lo, H., Lai, J., Wang, H....Hiramatsu, K. (2005). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1761-1763. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050367.

Salmonella Paratyphi A Rates, Asia [PDF - 187 KB - 3 pages]
R. Ochiai et al.

Little is known about the causes of enteric fever in Asia. Most cases are believed to be caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and the remainder by S. Paratyphi A. We compared their incidences by using standardized methods from population-based studies in China, Indonesia, India, and Pakistan.

EID Ochiai R, Wang X, von Seidlein L, Yang J, Bhutta ZA, Bhattacharya SK, et al. Salmonella Paratyphi A Rates, Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1764-1766. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050168
AMA Ochiai R, Wang X, von Seidlein L, et al. Salmonella Paratyphi A Rates, Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1764-1766. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050168.
APA Ochiai, R., Wang, X., von Seidlein, L., Yang, J., Bhutta, Z. A., Bhattacharya, S. K....Clemens, J. D. (2005). Salmonella Paratyphi A Rates, Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1764-1766. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050168.

Social Factors Associated with AIDS and SARS [PDF - 69 KB - 3 pages]
D. C. Des Jarlais et al.

We conducted a survey of 928 New York City area residents to assess knowledge and worry about AIDS and SARS. Specific sociodemographic groups of persons were more likely to be less informed and more worried about contracting the diseases.

EID Des Jarlais DC, Stuber J, Tracy M, Tross S, Galea S. Social Factors Associated with AIDS and SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1767-1769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050424
AMA Des Jarlais DC, Stuber J, Tracy M, et al. Social Factors Associated with AIDS and SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1767-1769. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050424.
APA Des Jarlais, D. C., Stuber, J., Tracy, M., Tross, S., & Galea, S. (2005). Social Factors Associated with AIDS and SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1767-1769. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050424.

Assays to Detect West Nile Virus in Dead Birds [PDF - 205 KB - 4 pages]
W. B. Stone et al.

Using oral swab samples to detect West Nile virus in dead birds, we compared the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP) assay with VecTest and real-time reverse-transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivities of RAMP and VecTest for testing corvid species were 91.0% and 82.1%, respectively.

EID Stone WB, Therrien JE, Benson R, Kramer L, Kauffman EB, Eidson M, et al. Assays to Detect West Nile Virus in Dead Birds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1770-1773. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050806
AMA Stone WB, Therrien JE, Benson R, et al. Assays to Detect West Nile Virus in Dead Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1770-1773. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050806.
APA Stone, W. B., Therrien, J. E., Benson, R., Kramer, L., Kauffman, E. B., Eidson, M....Campbell, S. (2005). Assays to Detect West Nile Virus in Dead Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1770-1773. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050806.

West Nile Virus Epidemic, Northeast Ohio, 2002 [PDF - 390 KB - 4 pages]
A. M. Mandalakas et al.

Serum samples and sociodemographic data were obtained from 1,209 Ohio residents. West Nile virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed. Children were 4.5 times more likely to become infected yet 110× less likely to have neuroinvasive disease develop.

EID Mandalakas AM, Kippes C, Sedransk J, Kile JR, Garg A, McLeod J, et al. West Nile Virus Epidemic, Northeast Ohio, 2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1774-1777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.040933
AMA Mandalakas AM, Kippes C, Sedransk J, et al. West Nile Virus Epidemic, Northeast Ohio, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1774-1777. doi:10.3201/eid1111.040933.
APA Mandalakas, A. M., Kippes, C., Sedransk, J., Kile, J. R., Garg, A., McLeod, J....Marfin, A. A. (2005). West Nile Virus Epidemic, Northeast Ohio, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1774-1777. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.040933.

Quarantine Stressing Voluntary Compliance [PDF - 20 KB - 2 pages]
C. DiGiovanni et al.

A 1-day table-top exercise in San Diego, California, in December 2004 emphasized voluntary compliance with home quarantine to control an emerging infectious disease outbreak. The exercise heightened local civilian-military collaboration in public health emergency management. Addressing concerns about lost income by residents in quarantine was particularly challenging.

EID DiGiovanni C, Bowen N, Ginsberg M, Giles G. Quarantine Stressing Voluntary Compliance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1778-1779. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050661
AMA DiGiovanni C, Bowen N, Ginsberg M, et al. Quarantine Stressing Voluntary Compliance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1778-1779. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050661.
APA DiGiovanni, C., Bowen, N., Ginsberg, M., & Giles, G. (2005). Quarantine Stressing Voluntary Compliance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1778-1779. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050661.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum–infected Ticks, Japan [PDF - 190 KB - 4 pages]
N. Ohashi et al.

We report Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ovatus ticks in Japan. Unique p44/msp2 paralogs (and/or 16S rRNA genes) were detected in tick tissues, salivary glands, and spleens of experimentally infected mice. These findings indicate the public health threat of anaplasmosis in Japan.

EID Ohashi N, Inayoshi M, Kitamura K, Kawamori F, Kawaguchi D, Nishimura Y, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum–infected Ticks, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1780-1783. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050407
AMA Ohashi N, Inayoshi M, Kitamura K, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum–infected Ticks, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1780-1783. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050407.
APA Ohashi, N., Inayoshi, M., Kitamura, K., Kawamori, F., Kawaguchi, D., Nishimura, Y....Masuzawa, T. (2005). Anaplasma phagocytophilum–infected Ticks, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1780-1783. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050407.

Tickborne Relapsing Fever in Israel [PDF - 169 KB - 3 pages]
G. Sidi et al.

We evaluated the epidemiology of relapsing fever from 1971 to 2003 in Israel. In civilians, incidence declined from 0.35 to 0.11 cases per 100,000 persons annually; in military personnel it averaged 6.4 cases per 100,000 persons annually. These data imply that the pathogen and vector continue to exist in Israel.

EID Sidi G, Davidovitch N, Balicer RD, Anis E, Grotto I, Schwartz E. Tickborne Relapsing Fever in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1784-1786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050521
AMA Sidi G, Davidovitch N, Balicer RD, et al. Tickborne Relapsing Fever in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1784-1786. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050521.
APA Sidi, G., Davidovitch, N., Balicer, R. D., Anis, E., Grotto, I., & Schwartz, E. (2005). Tickborne Relapsing Fever in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1784-1786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050521.

Slow Epidemic of Lymphogranuloma Venereum L2b Strain [PDF - 46 KB - 2 pages]
J. Spaargaren et al.

We traced the Chlamydia trachomatis L2b variant in Amsterdam and San Francisco. All recent lymphogranuloma venereum cases in Amsterdam were caused by the L2b variant. This variant was also present in the 1980s in San Francisco. Thus, the current "outbreak" is most likely a slowly evolving epidemic.

EID Spaargaren J, Schachter J, Moncada J, de Vries H, Fennema H, Peña A, et al. Slow Epidemic of Lymphogranuloma Venereum L2b Strain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1787-1788. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050821
AMA Spaargaren J, Schachter J, Moncada J, et al. Slow Epidemic of Lymphogranuloma Venereum L2b Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1787-1788. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050821.
APA Spaargaren, J., Schachter, J., Moncada, J., de Vries, H., Fennema, H., Peña, A....Morré, S. A. (2005). Slow Epidemic of Lymphogranuloma Venereum L2b Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1787-1788. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050821.
Letters

Adventitious Viruses and Smallpox Vaccine [PDF - 19 KB - 1 page]
C. Chastel
EID Chastel C. Adventitious Viruses and Smallpox Vaccine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.051031
AMA Chastel C. Adventitious Viruses and Smallpox Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1789. doi:10.3201/eid1111.051031.
APA Chastel, C. (2005). Adventitious Viruses and Smallpox Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.051031.

Ehrlichia ruminantium, Sudan [PDF - 56 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Muramatsu et al.
EID Muramatsu Y, Ukegawa S, El Hussein A, Abdel Rahman M, Abdel Gabbar K, Chitambo A, et al. Ehrlichia ruminantium, Sudan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1792-1793. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050744
AMA Muramatsu Y, Ukegawa S, El Hussein A, et al. Ehrlichia ruminantium, Sudan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1792-1793. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050744.
APA Muramatsu, Y., Ukegawa, S., El Hussein, A., Abdel Rahman, M., Abdel Gabbar, K., Chitambo, A....Tamura, Y. (2005). Ehrlichia ruminantium, Sudan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1792-1793. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050744.

Borrelia spielmanii Erythema Migrans, Hungary [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
G. Földvári et al.
EID Földvári G, Farkas R, Lakos A. Borrelia spielmanii Erythema Migrans, Hungary. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1794-1795. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050542
AMA Földvári G, Farkas R, Lakos A. Borrelia spielmanii Erythema Migrans, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1794-1795. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050542.
APA Földvári, G., Farkas, R., & Lakos, A. (2005). Borrelia spielmanii Erythema Migrans, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1794-1795. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050542.

Profiling Mycobacterium ulcerans with hsp65 [PDF - 40 KB - 2 pages]
S. Leão et al.
EID Leão S, Sampaio J, Martin A, Palomino J, Portaels F. Profiling Mycobacterium ulcerans with hsp65. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1795-1796. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050234
AMA Leão S, Sampaio J, Martin A, et al. Profiling Mycobacterium ulcerans with hsp65. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1795-1796. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050234.
APA Leão, S., Sampaio, J., Martin, A., Palomino, J., & Portaels, F. (2005). Profiling Mycobacterium ulcerans with hsp65. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1795-1796. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050234.

Spelling of Emerging Pathogens [PDF - 41 KB - 2 pages]
J. E. Moore and B. Millar
EID Moore JE, Millar B. Spelling of Emerging Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1796-1797. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050780
AMA Moore JE, Millar B. Spelling of Emerging Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1796-1797. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050780.
APA Moore, J. E., & Millar, B. (2005). Spelling of Emerging Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1796-1797. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050780.

Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia, Europe [PDF - 45 KB - 2 pages]
E. W. Tiemersma et al.
EID Tiemersma EW, Monnet DL, Bruinsma N, Skov R, Monen J, Grundmann H. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1798-1799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050524
AMA Tiemersma EW, Monnet DL, Bruinsma N, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1798-1799. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050524.
APA Tiemersma, E. W., Monnet, D. L., Bruinsma, N., Skov, R., Monen, J., & Grundmann, H. (2005). Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1798-1799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050524.

Family Clustering of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) [PDF - 50 KB - 3 pages]
S. J. Olsen et al.
EID Olsen SJ, Ungchusak K, Sovann L, Uyeki TM, Dowell SF, Cox NJ, et al. Family Clustering of Avian Influenza A (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1799-1801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050646
AMA Olsen SJ, Ungchusak K, Sovann L, et al. Family Clustering of Avian Influenza A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1799-1801. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050646.
APA Olsen, S. J., Ungchusak, K., Sovann, L., Uyeki, T. M., Dowell, S. F., Cox, N. J....Chunsuttiwat, S. (2005). Family Clustering of Avian Influenza A (H5N1). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1799-1801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050646.

Imported Tickborne Relapsing Fever, France [PDF - 53 KB - 3 pages]
B. Wyplosz et al.
EID Wyplosz B, Mihaila-Amrouche L, Baixench M, Bigel M, Berardi-Grassias L, Fontaine C, et al. Imported Tickborne Relapsing Fever, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1801-1803. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050616
AMA Wyplosz B, Mihaila-Amrouche L, Baixench M, et al. Imported Tickborne Relapsing Fever, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1801-1803. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050616.
APA Wyplosz, B., Mihaila-Amrouche, L., Baixench, M., Bigel, M., Berardi-Grassias, L., Fontaine, C....Postic, D. (2005). Imported Tickborne Relapsing Fever, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1801-1803. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050616.

Neonatal Moraxella osloensis Ophthalmia [PDF - 24 KB - 2 pages]
A. Walls and E. Wald
EID Walls A, Wald E. Neonatal Moraxella osloensis Ophthalmia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1803-1804. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050488
AMA Walls A, Wald E. Neonatal Moraxella osloensis Ophthalmia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1803-1804. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050488.
APA Walls, A., & Wald, E. (2005). Neonatal Moraxella osloensis Ophthalmia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1803-1804. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050488.

African Tick-bite Fever in French Travelers [PDF - 111 KB - 3 pages]
P. H. Consigny et al.
EID Consigny PH, Rolain J, Mizzi D, Raoult D. African Tick-bite Fever in French Travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1804-1806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050852
AMA Consigny PH, Rolain J, Mizzi D, et al. African Tick-bite Fever in French Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1804-1806. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050852.
APA Consigny, P. H., Rolain, J., Mizzi, D., & Raoult, D. (2005). African Tick-bite Fever in French Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1804-1806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050852.

Fluoroquinolone Use in Food Animals [PDF - 74 KB - 4 pages]
N. M. Iovine et al.
EID Iovine NM, Blaser MJ, Gupta A, Tauxe RV, Angulo FJ, Collignon P. Fluoroquinolone Use in Food Animals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1789-1792. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.040630
AMA Iovine NM, Blaser MJ, Gupta A, et al. Fluoroquinolone Use in Food Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1789-1792. doi:10.3201/eid1111.040630.
APA Iovine, N. M., Blaser, M. J., Gupta, A., Tauxe, R. V., Angulo, F. J., & Collignon, P. (2005). Fluoroquinolone Use in Food Animals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1789-1792. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.040630.
Books and Media

The AIDS Pandemic: Impact on Science and Society [PDF - 21 KB - 2 pages]
J. L. Stephens
EID Stephens JL. The AIDS Pandemic: Impact on Science and Society. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1807-1808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050897
AMA Stephens JL. The AIDS Pandemic: Impact on Science and Society. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1807-1808. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050897.
APA Stephens, J. L. (2005). The AIDS Pandemic: Impact on Science and Society. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1807-1808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050897.

Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans
R. P. Smith
EID Smith RP. Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1808-1809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.051160
AMA Smith RP. Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1808-1809. doi:10.3201/eid1111.051160.
APA Smith, R. P. (2005). Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1808-1809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.051160.

Microbe: Are We Ready for the Next Plague?
P. B. Jahrling
EID Jahrling PB. Microbe: Are We Ready for the Next Plague?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1807. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.051084
AMA Jahrling PB. Microbe: Are We Ready for the Next Plague?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1807. doi:10.3201/eid1111.051084.
APA Jahrling, P. B. (2005). Microbe: Are We Ready for the Next Plague?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1807. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.051084.
About the Cover

Phoenix and Fowl: Birds of a Feather [PDF - 167 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Phoenix and Fowl: Birds of a Feather. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1810-1811. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.ac1111
AMA Potter P. Phoenix and Fowl: Birds of a Feather. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1810-1811. doi:10.3201/eid1111.ac1111.
APA Potter, P. (2005). Phoenix and Fowl: Birds of a Feather. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1810-1811. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.ac1111.
Corrections

Correction, Vol. 11, No. 8 [PDF - 13 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction, Vol. 11, No. 8. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.c11111
AMA Correction, Vol. 11, No. 8. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1808. doi:10.3201/eid1111.c11111.
APA (2005). Correction, Vol. 11, No. 8. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.c11111.

Correction: Vol. 11, No. 10 [PDF - 13 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 11, No. 10. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(11):1808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.c21111
AMA Correction: Vol. 11, No. 10. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(11):1808. doi:10.3201/eid1111.c21111.
APA (2005). Correction: Vol. 11, No. 10. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(11), 1808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.c21111.
Page created: February 17, 2012
Page updated: May 04, 2012
Page reviewed: May 04, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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