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Volume 12, Number 5—May 2006
Tuberculosis Special Section

Beijing/W Genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Drug Resistance

European Concerted Action on New Generation Genetic Markers and Techniques for the Epidemiology and Control of Tuberculosis
Author affiliations: *RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

Main Article

Table 2

Trends in proportion of tuberculosis cases due to the Beijing genotype over time among nonimmigrant populations*

Study Period Earlier period,†
Beijing/total (%) Later period,†
Beijing/total (%) OR (95% CI) for change/y p for linear trend by y
Western Austria 1993–2004 2/363 (0.6) 5/310 (1.6) 1.2 (0.9–1.5) 0.2
Denmark 1992–2001 7/885 (0.8) 10/774 (1.3) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.4
Finland 2000–2002 2/414 (0.5) 11/705 (1.6) 1.7 (0.9–3.5) 0.1
The Netherlands 1993–2002 91/1,862 (4.9) 111/1,607 (6.9) 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 0.004
Western Sweden 1999–2002 0/34 (0.0) 3/43 (7.0) 3.1 (0.6–15) 0.2
London, UK 1995–1997 9/200 (4.5) 1/73 (1.4) 0.7 (0.3–1.8) 0.4
St. Petersburg, Russia 1999–2001 66/120 (55.0) 67/116 (57.8) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 0.9
Cape Town, South Africa 1992–1998 60/473 (12.7) 80/374 (21.4) 1.2 (1.1–1.3) <0.001
Karonga, Malawi‡ 1996–2003 12/460 (2.6) 32/570 (5.6) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.03
San Francisco, USA 1998–2000 6/50 (12.0) 6/59 (10.2) 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 1.0
Buenos Aires, Argentina 1998–2001 1/188 (0.53) 4/424 (0.94) 1.0 (0.4–2.3) 1.0
São Paulo, Brazil 2000–2002 2/268 (0.75) 1/114 (0.88) 1.0 (0.2–4.3) 1.0
Okayama, Japan 2000–2002 42/56 (75.0) 61/86 (70.9) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.4

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
†For each study, the period was split into 2 parts, earlier and later.
‡Includes immigrants from neighboring countries.

Main Article

1Analysis and writing committee: Judith R. Glynn, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Kristin Kremer, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Martien W. Borgdorff, Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, the Netherlands; Mar Pujades Rodriguez, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; and Dick van Soolingen, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

2The key contacts who contributed the data are listed as follows: Austria: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck); Denmark: Troels Lillebaek (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen); Finland: Hanna Soini, Petri Ruutu, (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki); France: Cristina Gutierrez, Veronique Vincent (Institut Pasteur, Paris); Beate Heym, Veronique Friocourt (Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne-Billancourt); Isabelle Fredenucci, Jean-Pierre Flandrois (Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Lyon); Germany: Stefan Niemann (National Reference Centre for Mycobacteria, Forschungszentrum Borstel, Hamburg), Roland Diel (School of Public Health, University of Düsseldorf); Italy: Stefano Bonora (Università di Verona); Leonardo A Sechi, Stephania Zanetti (Università di Sassari); Carlo Garzelli (Università di Pisa); the Netherlands: Martien Borgdorff (KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation) Petra de Haas, Kristin Kremer, Dick van Soolingen (RIVM); Spain: Montserrat Ruiz, Juan Carlos Rodríguez, Gloria Royo (Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche); Ana Pérez Meixeira, Jenaro Astray (Public Health Institute Getafe, Madrid), Juana Cacho, Amador Ramos (Hospital Universitario de Getafe); Maria Jose Iglesias (University of Zaragoza), Sofia Samper (Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza); United Kingdom: Andrew Hayward, John Watson, Francis Drobniewski (Health Protection Agency, London); Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey) on behalf of the Steering Committee, Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in London; Sweden: Malin Ridell, Liselott Svensson (Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Göteborg University); Czech Republic: Milan Kubin (Institute of Hygiene of the City of Prague); Estonia: Annika Krüüner (Tartu University, Estonia, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden); Russia: Olga Toungoussova (University of Oslo, Norway), Dominique Caugant (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway), Andrey Mariandyshev (Northern State Medical University, Archangel): Olga Narvaskaya, Igor Mokrousov (St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute), Tatjana Otten, Boris Vyshnevskiy (Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology, St. Petersburg); Iran: Mehrnoosh Doroudchi (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences); Cameroon: Sara Ngo Niobe-Eyangoh (Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaoundé); Ethiopia: Judith Bruchfeld (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Guinea Bissau: Tuija Koivula, Gunilla Kallenius (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Malawi: Amelia Crampin, Judith Glynn (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK) on behalf of The Karonga Prevention Study (Chilumba, Malawi); South Africa: Madalene Richardson, Paul van Helden, Rob Warren, Nulda Beyers (Stellenbosch University, Cape Town); Sudan: Ghada Sharaf-Eldin (National Health Laboratory, Khartoum); Zimbabwe: Philippa Easterbrook, Shahed Murad, Francis Drobniewski (King’s College London, UK); Cuba: Raul Diaz (Instituto Pedro Kourí, Havana); United States: Barry Kreiswirth (International Center for Public Health, Newark, NJ); Midori Kato-Maeda, Elizabeth Fair, Sebastien Gagneux, Peter Small (Stanford University, Stanford, CA); Argentina: Nora Morcillo (Reference Laboratory of Buenos Aires Tuberculosis Control Program) Angel Cataldi (National Institute of Agricultural Technology); Brazil: Lucilaine Ferrazoli (Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo); India: Kristin Kremer (RIVM), P. Seth (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi); Bangladesh: Leen Rigouts, Isdore Chola Shamputa (Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium); Indonesia: Reinout van Crevel (University Medical Center Nijmegen, the Netherlands); Malaysia: Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey, Guildford, UK); Thailand: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck, Austria), Porntip Bunyaratevej (Mahidol University, Bangkok); China: James Douglas (University of Hawaii); Li Weimin (Beijing Tuberculosis and Chest Tumor Institution), Kristin Kremer (RIVM); K.M. Kam (Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Hong Kong); Japan: Ritsuko Ohata (Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health); Mongolia: N. Naranbat (National Center for Communicable Diseases, Ulaanbaatar); Vietnam: Dang Duc Anh (National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi); Mai Huyen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan (Ho Chi Minh City); Taiwan: Ruwen Jou (Center for Disease Control, Taipei).

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