Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 12, Number 5—May 2006
THEME ISSUE
Tuberculosis Special Section
Research

Beijing/W Genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Drug Resistance

Author affiliations: *RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

Main Article

Table A2

Proportion of tuberculosis cases caused by the Beijing genotype in different studies

Study Period Overall Beijing/total (%) Excluding immigrants,*
Beijing/total (%)
Western Europe
Austria: western 1993–2004 12/895 (1.3) 7/673 (1.0)
Denmark: entire 1992–2001 96/3,844 (2.5) 17/1,659 (1.0)
Finland: entire 2000–2002 23/1,246 (1.9) 13/1,119 (1.2)
France
Paris area 1995 3/272 (1.1) 0/91 (0.0)
Paris 2001–2003 5/66 (7.6) 1/22 (4.6)
Lyon 2003 3/85 (3.5) 1/31 (3.2)
Germany: Hamburg 2001 6/178 (3.4) 1/80 (1.3)
Italy
Verona 1996–1997 2/158 (1.3) 0/131 (0.0)
Sardinia 1997–1998 2/350 (0.6) 0/28 (0.0)
Tuscany 2002 7/245 (2.9) 2/153 (1.2)
Netherlands: entire 1993–2002 522/8,510 (6.1) 202/3,469 (5.8)
Spain
Elche 1993–1999 0/146 (0.0)
Madrid 1992–2001 0/507 (0.0) 0/484 (0.0)
Zaragoza 1993–1995 2/569 (0.4) 0/544 (0.0)
Sweden: western 1999–2002 11/212 (5.2) 3/77 (3.9)
United Kingdom
Inner London 1993 18/547 (3.3) 5/164 (3.0)
London 1995–1997 108/2,490 (4.3) 10/273 (3.7)
Central and Eastern Europe
Czech Republic
Prague 1998 2/111 (1.8) 1/104 (1.0)
South Moravia 1998 5/120 (4.2) 0/114 (0.0)
Estonia: entire 1994 61/209 (29.2) 61/209 (29.2)
Russia
St. Petersburg 1999–2001 133/236 (56.4) 133/236 (56.4)
Archangel 1998–1999 54/119 (45.4)
North Africa and Middle East
Iran: several areas 1995–1997 10/101 (9.9) 6/81 (7.4)
Sub-Saharan Africa
Cameroon†: western region 1997–1998 0/456 (0.0) 0/456 (0.0)
Ethiopia: Addis Ababa 1996 0/121 (0.0) 0/121 (0.0)
Guinea Bissau: Bissau 1989–1993 1/229 (0.4) 1/221 (0.5)
Malawi: Karonga District 1996–2003 44/1,030 (4.3) 38/785 (4.8)
South Africa: Cape Town 1992–1998 140/847 (16.5) 140/847 (16.5)
Sudan: Khartoum 1998–1999 0/49 (0.0) 0/48 (0.0)
Zimbabwe: Harare 1997 4/214 (1.9) 4/212 (1.9)
North America
United States
New Jersey 1999 29/382 (7.6) 15/151 (9.9)
San Francisco 1998–2000 135/492 (27.4) 12/109 (11.0)
Caribbean
Cuba
Outside Havana 1994–1995 22/160 (13.8) 22/160 (13.8)
Havana 1997–1998 4/51 (7.8) 4/51 (7.8)
Latin America
Argentina: Buenos Aires 1998–2001 5/612 (0.8) 5/582 (0.9)
Brazil: São Paulo 2000–2001 4/420 (1.0) 3/382 (0.8)
Indian subcontinent
India: Delhi 1995–1996 1/83 (1.2)
Bangladesh: Mymensingh 2000–2002 7/97 (7.2)
Southeast Asia
Indonesia: Jakarta 1998–1999 32/91 (35.2) 32/91 (35.2)
Malaysia: Sample 1993–1994 71/426 (16.7) 65/388 (16.8)
Thailand: Bangkok 1998–2000 98/204 (48.0) 98/204 (48.0)
Vietnam
Hanoi 1998–1999 37/64 (57.8)
Ho Chi Minh City 1998–1999 263/499 (52.7)
Ho Chi Minh City 1998–2000 34/75 (45.3) 34/75 (45.3)
Tien Giang 2003 28/60 (46.7) 28/60 (46.7)
East Asia
China
Shanghai and other areas 1994–1995 40/59 (67.8)
Henan 2000–2001 36/52 (69.2) 36/52 (69.2)
Hong Kong: Hong Kong 1998–1999 356/500 (71.2)
Japan: Okayama 2000–2002 103/142 (72.5) 103/142 (72.5)
Mongolia: entire 1998–1999 97/168 (57.7) 97/168 (57.7)
Taiwan: entire 2002 187/421 (44.4)

*Immigration status not known for all patients.
†The spoligotype of 1 isolate in this study had only spacers 40–43, but other genetic markers showed it to be Mycobacterium africanum.

Main Article

1Analysis and writing committee: Judith R. Glynn, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Kristin Kremer, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Martien W. Borgdorff, Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, the Netherlands; Mar Pujades Rodriguez, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; and Dick van Soolingen, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

2The key contacts who contributed the data are listed as follows: Austria: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck); Denmark: Troels Lillebaek (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen); Finland: Hanna Soini, Petri Ruutu, (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki); France: Cristina Gutierrez, Veronique Vincent (Institut Pasteur, Paris); Beate Heym, Veronique Friocourt (Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne-Billancourt); Isabelle Fredenucci, Jean-Pierre Flandrois (Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Lyon); Germany: Stefan Niemann (National Reference Centre for Mycobacteria, Forschungszentrum Borstel, Hamburg), Roland Diel (School of Public Health, University of Düsseldorf); Italy: Stefano Bonora (Università di Verona); Leonardo A Sechi, Stephania Zanetti (Università di Sassari); Carlo Garzelli (Università di Pisa); the Netherlands: Martien Borgdorff (KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation) Petra de Haas, Kristin Kremer, Dick van Soolingen (RIVM); Spain: Montserrat Ruiz, Juan Carlos Rodríguez, Gloria Royo (Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche); Ana Pérez Meixeira, Jenaro Astray (Public Health Institute Getafe, Madrid), Juana Cacho, Amador Ramos (Hospital Universitario de Getafe); Maria Jose Iglesias (University of Zaragoza), Sofia Samper (Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza); United Kingdom: Andrew Hayward, John Watson, Francis Drobniewski (Health Protection Agency, London); Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey) on behalf of the Steering Committee, Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in London; Sweden: Malin Ridell, Liselott Svensson (Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Göteborg University); Czech Republic: Milan Kubin (Institute of Hygiene of the City of Prague); Estonia: Annika Krüüner (Tartu University, Estonia, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden); Russia: Olga Toungoussova (University of Oslo, Norway), Dominique Caugant (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway), Andrey Mariandyshev (Northern State Medical University, Archangel): Olga Narvaskaya, Igor Mokrousov (St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute), Tatjana Otten, Boris Vyshnevskiy (Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology, St. Petersburg); Iran: Mehrnoosh Doroudchi (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences); Cameroon: Sara Ngo Niobe-Eyangoh (Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaoundé); Ethiopia: Judith Bruchfeld (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Guinea Bissau: Tuija Koivula, Gunilla Kallenius (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna); Malawi: Amelia Crampin, Judith Glynn (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK) on behalf of The Karonga Prevention Study (Chilumba, Malawi); South Africa: Madalene Richardson, Paul van Helden, Rob Warren, Nulda Beyers (Stellenbosch University, Cape Town); Sudan: Ghada Sharaf-Eldin (National Health Laboratory, Khartoum); Zimbabwe: Philippa Easterbrook, Shahed Murad, Francis Drobniewski (King’s College London, UK); Cuba: Raul Diaz (Instituto Pedro Kourí, Havana); United States: Barry Kreiswirth (International Center for Public Health, Newark, NJ); Midori Kato-Maeda, Elizabeth Fair, Sebastien Gagneux, Peter Small (Stanford University, Stanford, CA); Argentina: Nora Morcillo (Reference Laboratory of Buenos Aires Tuberculosis Control Program) Angel Cataldi (National Institute of Agricultural Technology); Brazil: Lucilaine Ferrazoli (Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo); India: Kristin Kremer (RIVM), P. Seth (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi); Bangladesh: Leen Rigouts, Isdore Chola Shamputa (Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium); Indonesia: Reinout van Crevel (University Medical Center Nijmegen, the Netherlands); Malaysia: Jeremy Dale (University of Surrey, Guildford, UK); Thailand: Wolfgang Prodinger (Medizinische Universität Innsbruck, Austria), Porntip Bunyaratevej (Mahidol University, Bangkok); China: James Douglas (University of Hawaii); Li Weimin (Beijing Tuberculosis and Chest Tumor Institution), Kristin Kremer (RIVM); K.M. Kam (Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Hong Kong); Japan: Ritsuko Ohata (Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental Science and Public Health); Mongolia: N. Naranbat (National Center for Communicable Diseases, Ulaanbaatar); Vietnam: Dang Duc Anh (National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi); Mai Huyen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan (Ho Chi Minh City); Taiwan: Ruwen Jou (Center for Disease Control, Taipei).

Page created: January 12, 2012
Page updated: January 12, 2012
Page reviewed: January 12, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external