Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 13, Number 1—January 2007

Tickborne Relapsing Fever Diagnosis Obscured by Malaria, Togo

Annika Nordstrand*, Ignas Bunikis*, Christer Larsson*, Kodjo Tsogbe†, Tom G. Schwan‡, Mikael Nilsson§, and Sven Bergström*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; †Association Protestante des Oeuvres Médico-Sociales et Humanitaires du Togo, Lomé, Togo; ‡National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA; §The Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden;

Main Article

Table 3

Coinfection with malaria and relapsing fever caused by Borrelia and treatment in patients in northern and southern Togo with fever, 2002–2004

Region, groupMalaria infection,* no. positive/
no. tested (%)
Borrelia infected† and treated for malaria, 
no. positive/no. tested (%)
Borrelia infections effectively treated, no. positive/no. tested (%)
All patientsBorrelia infectedMalaria positiveMalaria negative‡
Children34/96 (35.4)4/8 (50)4/4 (100)1/4 (25)0/8
Children46/68 (67.6)2/3 (66.7)1/2 (50)0/11/3 (33.3)
Adults35/80 (43.8)1/10 (10)0/11/6 (16.6)0/7
Total81/148 (54.7)3/13 (23.1)1/3 (33.3)1/7 (14.3)1/10 (10)
All154/244 (63.1)7/21 (33.3)5/7 (71.4)2/11 (18.2)1/18 (5.6)

*Determined by microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood smears.
†Determined by positive PCR result and Borrelia species identification by sequence in blood. Three malaria-negative adults were not included because treatment information was not available.
‡Values represent patients treated only for malaria. Two of these 4 patients were treated for malaria in combination with drugs for treating helminth infections.

Main Article

Page created: June 28, 2010
Page updated: June 28, 2010
Page reviewed: June 28, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.