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Volume 13, Number 1—January 2007

Tickborne Relapsing Fever Diagnosis Obscured by Malaria, Togo

Annika Nordstrand*, Ignas Bunikis*, Christer Larsson*, Kodjo Tsogbe†, Tom G. Schwan‡, Mikael Nilsson§, and Sven Bergström*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; †Association Protestante des Oeuvres Médico-Sociales et Humanitaires du Togo, Lomé, Togo; ‡National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA; §The Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden;

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Table 2

Prevalence and identification of Borrelia infections in patients with fever at clinics in northern and southern Togo, 2002–2004

age group, ySeropositive for relapsing fever Borrelia,* 
no. positive/no. tested (%)Borrelia in blood,† no. positive/no. tested (%)Infected with B. crocidurae,‡ no. positive/no. tested (%)Infected with B. duttonii,‡ no. positive/
no. tested (%)
  0–46/60 (10)4 (6.7)3 (5)1 (1.7)
  5–143/30 (10)4 (13.3)3 (10)1 (3.3)
  Total9/90 (10)8 (8.8)6 (6.7)2 (2.2)
  0–42/16 (12.5)1 (6.3)1 (6.3)0
  5–143/35 (8.6)2 (5.7)2 (5.7)0
  Total5/51 (9.8)3 (5.9)3 (5.9)0
  15–247/43 (16.3)3 (7)3 (7)0
  >259/55 (16.4)7 (12.7)7 (12.7)0
  Total for adults16/98 (16.3)10 (10.2)10 (10.2)0
  Total21/149 (14.1)13 (8.7)13 (8.7)0
All30/239 (12.6)21 (8.8)19 (7.9)2 (1.2)

*Determined by ELISA for glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase antigen.
†Determined by 16S rRNA gene PCR amplification from blood of patients with high ELISA values divided by all ELISA- tested patients.
‡Determined by genomic sequence of 16S rRNA in blood samples.

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