Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008
CME ACTIVITY - Research
Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe
|E consumption||O-resistance phenotype||No. E–O intervals with significant association†||Correlation coefficients (r)
|r (CI)||E–O year||r (CI)||E–O year||r (CI)||E–O year|
|Total use (J01)
||PNSP||11||0.68 (0.30–0.87)||2003–2003||0.61 (0.17–0.84)||2001–2003||0.73 (0.39–0.90)||2002–2002|
(–0.11 to 0.75)
||PNSP||11||0.78 (0.48–0.92)||2003–2004||0.69 (0.28–0.87)||2003–2005||0.82 (0.55–0.93)||2004–2004|
(–0.15 to 0.74)
(–0.29 to 0.66)
|Cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems (J01D)
||PNSP||8||0.57 (0.13–0.83)||2002–2003||0.41 (–0.07 to 0.74)||2002–2004||0.64 (0.23–0.86)||2000–2002|
|Macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins (MLS class J01F)
||PNSP||4||0.42 (–0.08 to 0.75)||2004–2004||0.26 (–0.22 to 0.67)||2004–2005||0.53 (0.07–0.81)||2002–2002|
(–0.19 to 0.71)
|Fluoroquinolones (JO1MA)||PNSP||9||0.51 (0.04–0.80)||2004–2004||0.36 (–0.10 to 0.74)||2003–2005||0.57 (0.12–0.82)||2002–2002|
|ENSP||10||0.62 (0.18–0.85)||2001–2002||0.48 (–0.04 to 0.78)||2004–2005||0.69 (0.29–0.89)||2004–2004|
|FQRE‡||9||0.60 (0.17–0.84)||2004–2004||0.44 (–0.05 to 0.76)||2003–2005||0.70 (0.33–0.88)||2001–2002|
*PNSP, penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae; ENSP, erythromycin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae; FQRE, fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli; E, exposure; O, outcome; CI, 95% confidence interval; MLS, macrolides, lincosamines, and streptogramins.
†Exposure outcome intervals include all 11 possible time windows, considering the data for consumption (exposure) and resistance (outcome) for the same year as well as for intervals of 1 to 2 y between exposure and outcome. p<0.05 was significant.
‡Significant correlations of fluoroquinolone consumption were found only with FQRE. Other correlations were therefore not shown.
1National representatives of these 2 project groups in 2005 were as follows: Austria: H. Mittermayer, S. Metz, W. Koller (European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [EARSS]); Belgium: E. Hendrickx (EARSS), H. Goossens; Bulgaria: B. Markova; Croatia: A. Tambic-Andrasevic, Igor Francetic (European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption [ESAC]), S. Kalenic (EARSS); Cyprus: D. Bagatzouni (EARSS); Czech Republic: P. Dvorak (ESAC), P. Urbaskova (EARSS); Denmark: D. Monnet, A. Anker Nielsen (ESAC); Estonia: P. Naaber (EARSS); Finland: P. Huovinen (ESAC), P. Paakkari (ESAC), O. Lyytikainen (EARSS), A. Nissinen (EARSS); France: P. Maugendre (ESAC), D. Guillemot (ESAC), B. Coignard, (EARSS), V. Jarlier (EARSS); Germany: W. Kern (ESAC), H. Schroeder (ESAC), W. Witte (EARSS), K. Heckenbach (EARSS); Greece: H. Giamarellou (ESAC), A. Antoniadou (ESAC), A. Tsakris (EARSS), A. Vatopoulos (EARSS); Hungary: G. Ternak (ESAC), M. Fuzi (EARSS); Iceland: K. Kristinsson; Ireland: E. Smyth (ESAC), R. Cunney (ESAC), D. Igoe (EARSS), O. Murphy (EARSS); Israel: R. Raz (EARSS); Italy: G. Cornaglia, A. Pantosti (EARSS), P. D’Ancona (EARSS); Latvia: S. Berzina (ESAC), A. Balode (EARSS); Lithuania: R. Valenteliene (ESAC), J. Miciulevicience; Luxembourg: R. Hemmer, M. Bruch (ESAC); Malta: M. Borg, P. Zarb (ESAC); the Netherlands: R. Janknegt (ESAC), M. Filius (ESAC), H. de Neeling (EARSS), E. Tiemermsa, J Degener (EARSS); Norway: H. Salvesen Blix (ESAC), A. Hoiby (EARSS), G. Simonsen (EARSS); Poland: W. Hryniewicz, P. Grzesiowski; Portugal: L. Caldeira (ESAC), M. Canica (EARSS); Romania: I. Codita; Slovakia: V. Foltan (ESAC), T. Tesar (ESAC), L. Langsadl (EARSS); Slovenia: M. Cizman (ESAC), M. Mueller-Premru (EARSS), J. Kolman (EARSS); Spain: J. Campos, F. Baquero (EARSS); Sweden: O. Cars (ESAC), G. Skoog (ESAC), B. Liljequist (EARSS), G. Kahlmeter (EARSS); Turkey: S. Unal (ESAC), D. Gür (EARSS); United Kingdom: P. Davey (ESAC), A. Johnson (EARSS), R. Hill (EARSS), H. Hughes (EARSS), M. Coyne (EARSS).
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