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Issue Cover for Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008

Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008

[PDF - 7.87 MB - 155 pages]

Perspective

Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers [PDF - 110 KB - 4 pages]
J. W. Le Duc et al.

Construction of several new Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories and expansion of existing operations have created an increased international demand for well-trained staff and facility leaders. Directors of most North American BSL-4 laboratories met and agreed upon a framework for leadership and training of biocontainment research and operations staff. They agreed on essential preparation and training that includes theoretical consideration of biocontainment principles, practical hands-on training, and mentored on-the-job experiences relevant to positional responsibilities as essential preparation before a person’s independent access to a BSL-4 facility. They also agreed that the BSL-4 laboratory director is the key person most responsible for ensuring that staff members are appropriately prepared for BSL-4 operations. Although standardized certification of training does not formally exist, the directors agreed that facility-specific, time-limited documentation to recognize specific skills and experiences of trained persons is needed.

EID Le Duc JW, Anderson K, Bloom ME, Estep JE, Feldmann H, Geisbert JB, et al. Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1685-1688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080741
AMA Le Duc JW, Anderson K, Bloom ME, et al. Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1685-1688. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080741.
APA Le Duc, J. W., Anderson, K., Bloom, M. E., Estep, J. E., Feldmann, H., Geisbert, J. B....Weingartl, H. (2008). Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1685-1688. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080741.

Antimicrobial Drug–Selection Markers for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei [PDF - 135 KB - 4 pages]
H. P. Schweizer and S. J. Peacock

Genetic research into the select agents Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei is currently hampered by a paucity of approved antimicrobial drug–selection markers. The strict regulations imposed on researchers in the United States but not in other parts of the world lead to discrepancies in practice, hinder distribution of genetically modified strains, and impede progress in the field. Deliberation and decisions regarding alternative selection markers (antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial drugs) by the international community, regulatory authorities, and funding agencies are needed.

EID Schweizer HP, Peacock SJ. Antimicrobial Drug–Selection Markers for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1689-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080431
AMA Schweizer HP, Peacock SJ. Antimicrobial Drug–Selection Markers for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1689-1692. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080431.
APA Schweizer, H. P., & Peacock, S. J. (2008). Antimicrobial Drug–Selection Markers for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1689-1692. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080431.
Research

Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Rural Southwestern Alaska [PDF - 205 KB - 7 pages]
M. Z. David et al.

USA300 is the dominant strain responsible for community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in most of the United States. We examined isolates from outbreaks of MRSA skin infections in rural southwestern Alaska in 1996 and 2000 (retrospective collection) and from the hospital serving this region in 2004–2006 (prospective collection). Among 36 retrospective collection isolates, 92% carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes; all carried staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IV. None belonged to clonal complex (CC) 8, the CC associated with USA300; 57% were sequence type (ST) 1, and 26% were ST30; 61% were clindamycin resistant. In the prospective collection, 42 isolates were PVL+ and carried SCCmec type IV; 83.3% were ST1, 9.5% were ST30, and 7.1% were ST8. Among 120 prospective isolates, 57.5% were clindamycin resistant. CA-MRSA epidemiology in southwestern Alaska differs from that in the lower 48 states; ST8 strains were rarely identified and clindamycin resistance was common.

EID David MZ, Rudolph KM, Hennessy TW, Boyle-Vavra S, Daum RS. Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Rural Southwestern Alaska. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1693-1699. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080381
AMA David MZ, Rudolph KM, Hennessy TW, et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Rural Southwestern Alaska. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1693-1699. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080381.
APA David, M. Z., Rudolph, K. M., Hennessy, T. W., Boyle-Vavra, S., & Daum, R. S. (2008). Molecular Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Rural Southwestern Alaska. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1693-1699. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080381.

Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Germany [PDF - 120 KB - 7 pages]
B. Eker et al.

We evaluated risk factors and treatment outcomes associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) in Germany in 2004–2006. In 177 (4%) of 4,557 culture-positive TB cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were identified as MDR TB; an additional 7 (0.15%) met criteria for XDR TB. Of these 184 patients, 148 (80%) were born in countries of the former Soviet Union. In patients with XDR TB, hospitalization was longer (mean ± SD 202 ± 130 vs. 123 ± 81 days; p = 0.015) and resistance to all first-line drugs was more frequent (36% vs. 86%; p = 0.013) than in patients with MDR TB. Seventy-four (40%) of these 184 patients received treatment with linezolid. Treatment success rates ranged from 59% for the entire cohort (59% for MDR TB and 57% for XDR TB) to 87% for those with a definitive outcome (n = 125; 89% for MDR TB and 80% for XDR TB). Extensive drug susceptibility testing and availability of second- and third-line drugs under inpatient management conditions permit relatively high treatment success rates in MDR- and XDR TB.

EID Eker B, Ortmann J, Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, Muetterlein R, Centis R, et al. Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1700-1706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080729
AMA Eker B, Ortmann J, Migliori GB, et al. Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1700-1706. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080729.
APA Eker, B., Ortmann, J., Migliori, G. B., Sotgiu, G., Muetterlein, R., Centis, R....Lange, C. (2008). Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1700-1706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080729.

Mixture for Controlling Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors [PDF - 311 KB - 8 pages]
C. Pennetier et al.

The spread of resistance to pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. necessitates the development of new strategies to control resistant mosquito populations. To test the efficacy of nets treated with repellent and insecticide against susceptible and insecticide-resistant An. gambiae mosquito populations, we impregnated mosquito bed nets with an insect repellent mixed with a low dose of organophosphorous insecticide and tested them in a rice-growing area near Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. During the first 2 weeks posttreatment, the mixture was as effective as deltamethrin alone and was more effective at killing An. gambiae that carried knockdown resistance (kdr) or insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance (Ace1R) genes. The mixture seemed to not kill more susceptible genotypes for the kdr or Ace1R alleles. Mixing repellents and organophosphates on bed nets could be used to control insecticide-resistant malaria vectors if residual activity of the mixture is extended and safety is verified.

EID Pennetier C, Costantini C, Corbel V, Licciardi S, Dabiré RK, Lapied B, et al. Mixture for Controlling Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1707-1714. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071575
AMA Pennetier C, Costantini C, Corbel V, et al. Mixture for Controlling Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1707-1714. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071575.
APA Pennetier, C., Costantini, C., Corbel, V., Licciardi, S., Dabiré, R. K., Lapied, B....Hougard, J. (2008). Mixture for Controlling Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1707-1714. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071575.

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis 
Outbreak among US-bound Hmong 
Refugees, Thailand, 2005 [PDF - 178 KB - 7 pages]
J. E. Oeltmann et al.

In January 2005, tuberculosis (TB), including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), was reported among Hmong refugees who were living in or had recently immigrated to the United States from a camp in Thailand. We investigated TB and drug resistance, enhanced TB screenings, and expanded treatment capacity in the camp. In February 2005, 272 patients with TB (24 MDR TB) remained in the camp. Among 17 MDR TB patients interviewed, 13 were found to be linked socially. Of 23 MDR TB isolates genotyped, 20 were similar according to 3 molecular typing methods. Before enhanced screening was implemented, 46 TB cases (6 MDR TB) were diagnosed in the United States among 9,455 resettled refugees. After enhanced screening had begun, only 4 TB cases (1 MDR TB), were found among 5,705 resettled refugees. An MDR TB outbreak among US-bound refugees led to importation of disease; enhanced pre-immigration TB screening and treatment decreased subsequent importation.

EID Oeltmann JE, Varma JK, Ortega L, Liu Y, O’Rourke T, Cano M, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis 
Outbreak among US-bound Hmong 
Refugees, Thailand, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1715-1721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071629
AMA Oeltmann JE, Varma JK, Ortega L, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis 
Outbreak among US-bound Hmong 
Refugees, Thailand, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1715-1721. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071629.
APA Oeltmann, J. E., Varma, J. K., Ortega, L., Liu, Y., O’Rourke, T., Cano, M....Maloney, S. A. (2008). Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis 
Outbreak among US-bound Hmong 
Refugees, Thailand, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1715-1721. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071629.

Medscape CME Activity
Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe [PDF - 207 KB - 9 pages]
N. van de Sande-Bruinsma et al.

Our study confronts the use of antimicrobial agents in ambulatory care with the resistance trends of 2 major pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, in 21 European countries in 2000–2005 and explores whether the notion that antimicrobial drug use determines resistance can be supported by surveillance data at national aggregation levels. The data obtained from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption and the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System suggest that variation of consumption coincides with the occurrence of resistance at the country level. Linear regression analysis showed that the association between antimicrobial drug use and resistance was specific and robust for 2 of 3 compound pathogen combinations, stable over time, but not sensitive enough to explain all of the observed variations. Ecologic studies based on routine surveillance data indicate a relation between use and resistance and support interventions designed to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption at a national level in Europe.

EID van de Sande-Bruinsma N, Grundmann H, Verloo D, Tiemersma E, Monen J, Goossens H, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1722-1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.070467
AMA van de Sande-Bruinsma N, Grundmann H, Verloo D, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1722-1730. doi:10.3201/eid1411.070467.
APA van de Sande-Bruinsma, N., Grundmann, H., Verloo, D., Tiemersma, E., Monen, J., Goossens, H....Ferech, M. (2008). Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1722-1730. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.070467.

Replacement of Sublineages of Avian Influenza (H5N1) by Reassortments, Sub-Saharan Africa [PDF - 227 KB - 5 pages]
A. A. Owoade et al.

Eight new full-length sequences from highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1) from 4 states in southwest Nigeria were analyzed. All gene sequences were more closely related to the first strains found in Nigeria in 2006 than to any strain found outside the country. Six viruses had evolved by at least 3 reassortment events (ACHA/NS, ACNS) from previously identified sublineages A (EMA 2) and C (EMA 1). Our results suggest that highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1) initially imported into Nigeria in 2006 have been gradually replaced by various reassortments. In all reassortants, nonstructural genes were derived from sublineage C with 2 characteristic amino acids (compared with sublineage A). If the high prevalence of reassortants was typical for West Africa in 2007, the absence of such reassortants anywhere else suggests that reintroductions of influenza A (H5N1) from Africa into Eurasia must be rare.

EID Owoade AA, Gerloff NA, Ducatez MF, Taiwo JO, Kremer JR, Muller CP. Replacement of Sublineages of Avian Influenza (H5N1) by Reassortments, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1731-1735. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080555
AMA Owoade AA, Gerloff NA, Ducatez MF, et al. Replacement of Sublineages of Avian Influenza (H5N1) by Reassortments, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1731-1735. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080555.
APA Owoade, A. A., Gerloff, N. A., Ducatez, M. F., Taiwo, J. O., Kremer, J. R., & Muller, C. P. (2008). Replacement of Sublineages of Avian Influenza (H5N1) by Reassortments, Sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1731-1735. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080555.
Dispatches

Domestic Pigs and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Australia [PDF - 211 KB - 3 pages]
A. F. van den Hurk et al.

To determine whether relocating domestic pigs, the amplifying host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), decreased the risk for JEV transmission to humans in northern Australia, we collected mosquitoes for virus detection. Detection of JEV in mosquitoes after pig relocation indicates that pig relocation did not eliminate JEV risk.

EID van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Johansen CA, MacKenzie JS, Smith GA. Domestic Pigs and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1736-1738. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071368
AMA van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Johansen CA, et al. Domestic Pigs and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1736-1738. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071368.
APA van den Hurk, A. F., Ritchie, S. A., Johansen, C. A., MacKenzie, J. S., & Smith, G. A. (2008). Domestic Pigs and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1736-1738. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071368.

Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Live Bird Markets and Food Markets, Thailand [PDF - 418 KB - 4 pages]
A. Amonsin et al.

A surveillance program for influenza A viruses (H5N1) was conducted in live bird and food markets in central Thailand during July 2006–August 2007. Twelve subtype H5N1 viruses were isolated. The subtype H5N1 viruses circulating in the markets were genetically related to those that circulated in Thailand during 2004–2005.

EID Amonsin A, Choatrakol C, Lapkuntod J, Tantilertcharoen R, Thanawongnuwech R, Suradhat S, et al. Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Live Bird Markets and Food Markets, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1739-1742. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080683
AMA Amonsin A, Choatrakol C, Lapkuntod J, et al. Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Live Bird Markets and Food Markets, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1739-1742. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080683.
APA Amonsin, A., Choatrakol, C., Lapkuntod, J., Tantilertcharoen, R., Thanawongnuwech, R., Suradhat, S....Poovorawan, Y. (2008). Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Live Bird Markets and Food Markets, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1739-1742. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080683.

Successful Treatment of Disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. Infection with Miltefosine [PDF - 301 KB - 4 pages]
A. C. Aichelburg et al.

We report on an HIV-negative but immunocompromised patient with disseminated acanthamoebiasis, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and underlying miliary tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis. The patient responded favorably to treatment with miltefosine, an alkylphosphocholine. The patient remained well with no signs of infection 2 years after treatment cessation.

EID Aichelburg AC, Walochnik J, Assadian O, Prosch H, Steuer A, Perneczky G, et al. Successful Treatment of Disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. Infection with Miltefosine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1743-1746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.070854
AMA Aichelburg AC, Walochnik J, Assadian O, et al. Successful Treatment of Disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. Infection with Miltefosine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1743-1746. doi:10.3201/eid1411.070854.
APA Aichelburg, A. C., Walochnik, J., Assadian, O., Prosch, H., Steuer, A., Perneczky, G....Vetter, N. (2008). Successful Treatment of Disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. Infection with Miltefosine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1743-1746. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.070854.

Delinquent Mortgages, Neglected Swimming Pools, and West Nile Virus, California [PDF - 262 KB - 3 pages]
W. K. Reisen et al.

Adjustable rate mortgages and the downturn in the California housing market caused a 300% increase in notices of delinquency in Bakersfield, Kern County. This led to large numbers of neglected swimming pools, which were associated with a 276% increase in the number of human West Nile virus cases during the summer of 2007.

EID Reisen WK, Takahashi RM, Carroll BD, Quiring R. Delinquent Mortgages, Neglected Swimming Pools, and West Nile Virus, California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1747-1749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080719
AMA Reisen WK, Takahashi RM, Carroll BD, et al. Delinquent Mortgages, Neglected Swimming Pools, and West Nile Virus, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1747-1749. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080719.
APA Reisen, W. K., Takahashi, R. M., Carroll, B. D., & Quiring, R. (2008). Delinquent Mortgages, Neglected Swimming Pools, and West Nile Virus, California. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1747-1749. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080719.

Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test to Identify Plasmodium knowlesi Infection [PDF - 371 KB - 3 pages]
T. F. McCutchan et al.

Reports of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi, a monkey malaria, suggest that it and other nonhuman malaria species may be an emerging health problem. We report the use of a rapid test to supplement microscopic analysis in distinguishing the 5 malaria species that infect humans.

EID McCutchan TF, Piper RC, Makler MT. Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test to Identify Plasmodium knowlesi Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1750-1752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080840
AMA McCutchan TF, Piper RC, Makler MT. Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test to Identify Plasmodium knowlesi Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1750-1752. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080840.
APA McCutchan, T. F., Piper, R. C., & Makler, M. T. (2008). Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test to Identify Plasmodium knowlesi Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1750-1752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080840.

Phylogenetics and Pathogenesis of Early Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Nigeria [PDF - 236 KB - 3 pages]
C. O. Aiki-Raji et al.

Three highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 and 4 Newcastle disease viruses were isolated from sick or dead chickens in southwestern Nigeria. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis placed them within H5N1 subclade 2.2.2. Intravenous and intranasal pathogenicity tests produced systemic disease with vascular endothelial cell tropism in chickens.

EID Aiki-Raji CO, Aguilar PV, Kwon Y, Goetz S, Suarez DL, Jethra AI, et al. Phylogenetics and Pathogenesis of Early Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Nigeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1753-1755. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080557
AMA Aiki-Raji CO, Aguilar PV, Kwon Y, et al. Phylogenetics and Pathogenesis of Early Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Nigeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1753-1755. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080557.
APA Aiki-Raji, C. O., Aguilar, P. V., Kwon, Y., Goetz, S., Suarez, D. L., Jethra, A. I....Basler, C. F. (2008). Phylogenetics and Pathogenesis of Early Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Nigeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1753-1755. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080557.

Growth and Geographic Variation in Hospitalizations with Resistant Infections, United States, 2000–2005 [PDF - 131 KB - 3 pages]
M. D. Zilberberg et al.

From 2000 through 2005, hospitalizations with resistant infections (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile–associated disease, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida infection) nearly doubled, from 499,702 to 947,393. Regional variations noted in the aggregate and by individual infection may help clarify modifiable risk factors driving these infections.

EID Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF, Kollef MH. Growth and Geographic Variation in Hospitalizations with Resistant Infections, United States, 2000–2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1756-1758. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080337
AMA Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF, Kollef MH. Growth and Geographic Variation in Hospitalizations with Resistant Infections, United States, 2000–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1756-1758. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080337.
APA Zilberberg, M. D., Shorr, A. F., & Kollef, M. H. (2008). Growth and Geographic Variation in Hospitalizations with Resistant Infections, United States, 2000–2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1756-1758. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080337.

Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France [PDF - 190 KB - 3 pages]
P. Del Giudice et al.

We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

EID Del Giudice P, Blanc-Amrane V, Bahadoran P, Caumes E, Marty P, Lazar M, et al. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1759-1761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080288
AMA Del Giudice P, Blanc-Amrane V, Bahadoran P, et al. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1759-1761. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080288.
APA Del Giudice, P., Blanc-Amrane, V., Bahadoran, P., Caumes, E., Marty, P., Lazar, M....Delaunay, P. (2008). Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1759-1761. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080288.

Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Distribution,Thailand [PDF - 170 KB - 4 pages]
N. Nitatpattana et al.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotypes in Thailand were studied in pigs and mosquitoes collected near houses of confirmed human JEV cases in 2003–2005. Twelve JEV strains isolated belonged to genotype I, which shows a switch from genotype III incidence that started during the 1980s.

EID Nitatpattana N, Dubot-Pérès A, Gouilh MA, Souris M, Barbazan P, Yoksan S, et al. Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Distribution,Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1762-1765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080542
AMA Nitatpattana N, Dubot-Pérès A, Gouilh MA, et al. Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Distribution,Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1762-1765. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080542.
APA Nitatpattana, N., Dubot-Pérès, A., Gouilh, M. A., Souris, M., Barbazan, P., Yoksan, S....Gonzalez, J. (2008). Change in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Distribution,Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1762-1765. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080542.

Role of Human Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Tract Disease in Young Children [PDF - 98 KB - 3 pages]
R. L. Wattier et al.

KI virus was detected in respiratory secretions of 8/367 (2.2%) symptomatic and 0/96 asymptomatic children (p = 0.215). WU virus was detected in 26/367 (7.1%) symptomatic and 6/96 (6.3%) asymptomatic children (p = 1.00). These human polyomaviruses may not independently cause respiratory tract disease in young children.

EID Wattier RL, Vázquez M, Weibel C, Shapiro ED, Ferguson D, Landry ML, et al. Role of Human Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Tract Disease in Young Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1766-1768. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080394
AMA Wattier RL, Vázquez M, Weibel C, et al. Role of Human Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Tract Disease in Young Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1766-1768. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080394.
APA Wattier, R. L., Vázquez, M., Weibel, C., Shapiro, E. D., Ferguson, D., Landry, M. L....Kahn, J. S. (2008). Role of Human Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Tract Disease in Young Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1766-1768. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080394.

Identification of Potential Environmentally Adapted Campylobacter jejuni Strain, United Kingdom [PDF - 192 KB - 5 pages]
W. Sopwith et al.

In a study of Campylobacter infection in northwestern England, 2003–2006, C. jejuni multilocus sequence type (ST)–45 was associated with early summer onset and was the most prevalent C. jejuni type in surface waters. ST-45 is likely more adapted to survival outside a host, making it a key driver of transmission between livestock, environmental, and human settings.

EID Sopwith W, Birtles A, Matthews M, Fox A, Gee S, Painter M, et al. Identification of Potential Environmentally Adapted Campylobacter jejuni Strain, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1769-1773. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071678
AMA Sopwith W, Birtles A, Matthews M, et al. Identification of Potential Environmentally Adapted Campylobacter jejuni Strain, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1769-1773. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071678.
APA Sopwith, W., Birtles, A., Matthews, M., Fox, A., Gee, S., Painter, M....Bolton, E. (2008). Identification of Potential Environmentally Adapted Campylobacter jejuni Strain, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1769-1773. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071678.

Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus Variants, Vietnam and China, 2007 [PDF - 217 KB - 3 pages]
Q. Hu et al.

We characterized isolates from porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus epidemics in Vietnam and China in 2007. These isolates showed ≈99% identity at the genomic level. Genetic analysis indicated that they share a discontinuous deletion of 30 aa in nonstructural protein 2, which indicates that identical variants emerged in Vietnam and China.

EID Hu Q, Zhao T, Nguyen T, Inui K, Ma Y, Nguyen TH, et al. Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus Variants, Vietnam and China, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1774-1776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071676
AMA Hu Q, Zhao T, Nguyen T, et al. Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus Variants, Vietnam and China, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1774-1776. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071676.
APA Hu, Q., Zhao, T., Nguyen, T., Inui, K., Ma, Y., Nguyen, T. H....Gao, G. F. (2008). Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus Variants, Vietnam and China, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1774-1776. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071676.

Possible New Hepatitis B Virus Genotype, Southeast Asia [PDF - 284 KB - 4 pages]
C. M. Olinger et al.

We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 19 hepatitis B virus strains from Laos that belonged to 2 subgenotypes of a new genotype I. This emerging new genotype likely developed outside Southeast Asia and is now found in mixed infections and in recombinations with local strains in a geographically confined region.

EID Olinger CM, Jutavijittum P, Hübschen JM, Yousukh A, Samountry B, Thammavong T, et al. Possible New Hepatitis B Virus Genotype, Southeast Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1777-1780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080437
AMA Olinger CM, Jutavijittum P, Hübschen JM, et al. Possible New Hepatitis B Virus Genotype, Southeast Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1777-1780. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080437.
APA Olinger, C. M., Jutavijittum, P., Hübschen, J. M., Yousukh, A., Samountry, B., Thammavong, T....Muller, C. P. (2008). Possible New Hepatitis B Virus Genotype, Southeast Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1777-1780. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080437.

Tourism and Specific Risk Areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada [PDF - 121 KB - 3 pages]
C. Chambers et al.

We compared travel histories of case-patients with Cryptococcus gattii infection during 1999–2006 to travel destinations of the general public on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Findings validated and refined estimates of risk on the basis of place of residence and showed no spatial progression of risk areas on this island over time.

EID Chambers C, MacDougall L, Li M, Galanis E. Tourism and Specific Risk Areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1781-1783. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080532
AMA Chambers C, MacDougall L, Li M, et al. Tourism and Specific Risk Areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1781-1783. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080532.
APA Chambers, C., MacDougall, L., Li, M., & Galanis, E. (2008). Tourism and Specific Risk Areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1781-1783. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080532.

Metagenomic Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections [PDF - 115 KB - 3 pages]
S. Nakamura et al.

To test the ability of high-throughput DNA sequencing to detect bacterial pathogens, we used it on DNA from a patient’s feces during and after diarrheal illness. Sequences showing best matches for Campylobacter jejuni were detected only in the illness sample. Various bacteria may be detectable with this metagenomic approach.

EID Nakamura S, Maeda N, Miron IM, Yoh M, Izutsu K, Kataoka C, et al. Metagenomic Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1784-1786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080589
AMA Nakamura S, Maeda N, Miron IM, et al. Metagenomic Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1784-1786. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080589.
APA Nakamura, S., Maeda, N., Miron, I. M., Yoh, M., Izutsu, K., Kataoka, C....Iida, T. (2008). Metagenomic Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1784-1786. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080589.

Prevalence and Pathogenicity of WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Children, the Netherlands [PDF - 104 KB - 3 pages]
M. M. van der Zalm et al.

A longitudinal study in 2004 and 2005 detected polyomaviruses WU and KI in 44% and 17% of children with and without respiratory symptoms, respectively, in the Netherlands. In some children both viruses were detected for long periods. In several symptomatic children no other respiratory pathogen was detected.

EID van der Zalm MM, Rossen JW, van Ewijk BE, Wilbrink B, van Esch PC, Wolfs TF, et al. Prevalence and Pathogenicity of WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Children, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1787-1789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080464
AMA van der Zalm MM, Rossen JW, van Ewijk BE, et al. Prevalence and Pathogenicity of WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Children, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1787-1789. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080464.
APA van der Zalm, M. M., Rossen, J. W., van Ewijk, B. E., Wilbrink, B., van Esch, P. C., Wolfs, T. F....van der Ent, C. K. (2008). Prevalence and Pathogenicity of WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Children, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1787-1789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080464.

New Foci of Buruli Ulcer, Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo [PDF - 136 KB - 3 pages]
K. Kibadi et al.

We report 3 patients with laboratory-confirmed Buruli ulcer in Kafufu/Luremo, Angola, and Kasongo-Lunda, Democratic Republic of Congo. These villages are near the Kwango/Cuango River, which flows through both countries. Further investigation of artisanal alluvial mining as a risk factor for Buruli ulcer is recommended.

EID Kibadi K, Panda M, Tamfum J, Fraga AG, Filho AL, Anyo G, et al. New Foci of Buruli Ulcer, Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1790-1792. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071649
AMA Kibadi K, Panda M, Tamfum J, et al. New Foci of Buruli Ulcer, Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1790-1792. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071649.
APA Kibadi, K., Panda, M., Tamfum, J., Fraga, A. G., Filho, A. L., Anyo, G....Portaels, F. (2008). New Foci of Buruli Ulcer, Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1790-1792. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071649.

Novel Human Rhinoviruses and Exacerbation of Asthma in Children [PDF - 127 KB - 4 pages]
N. Khetsuriani et al.

To determine links between human rhinoviruses (HRV) and asthma, we used data from a case–control study, March 2003–February 2004, among children with asthma. Molecular characterization identified several likely new HRVs and showed that association with asthma exacerbations was largely driven by HRV-A and a phylogenetically distinct clade of 8 strains, genogroup C.

EID Khetsuriani N, Lu X, Teague WG, Kazerouni N, Anderson LJ, Erdman DD. Novel Human Rhinoviruses and Exacerbation of Asthma in Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1793-1796. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080386
AMA Khetsuriani N, Lu X, Teague WG, et al. Novel Human Rhinoviruses and Exacerbation of Asthma in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1793-1796. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080386.
APA Khetsuriani, N., Lu, X., Teague, W. G., Kazerouni, N., Anderson, L. J., & Erdman, D. D. (2008). Novel Human Rhinoviruses and Exacerbation of Asthma in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1793-1796. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080386.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Beauty Salon, the Netherlands [PDF - 107 KB - 3 pages]
X. W. Huijsdens et al.

An outbreak of community-associated USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurred in a beautician and 2 of her customers. Eight other persons, who were either infected (n = 5) or colonized (n = 3), were linked to this outbreak, including a family member, a household contact, and partners of customers.

EID Huijsdens XW, Janssen M, Renders N, Leenders A, van Wijk P, van Santen-Verheuvel MG, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Beauty Salon, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1797-1799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071297
AMA Huijsdens XW, Janssen M, Renders N, et al. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Beauty Salon, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1797-1799. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071297.
APA Huijsdens, X. W., Janssen, M., Renders, N., Leenders, A., van Wijk, P., van Santen-Verheuvel, M. G....Morroy, G. (2008). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Beauty Salon, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1797-1799. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071297.

Unusual Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Human Cases of Diarrhea [PDF - 132 KB - 3 pages]
G. Robinson et al.

Several Cryptosporidium spp. are known to infect humans, but most cases of illness are caused by Cryptosporidium hominis or C. parvum. During a long-term genotyping in the United Kingdom, we identified 3 unusual Cryptosporidium genotypes (skunk, horse, and rabbit) in human patients with diarrhea.

EID Robinson G, Elwin K, Chalmers RM. Unusual Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Human Cases of Diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1800-1802. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080239
AMA Robinson G, Elwin K, Chalmers RM. Unusual Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Human Cases of Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1800-1802. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080239.
APA Robinson, G., Elwin, K., & Chalmers, R. M. (2008). Unusual Cryptosporidium Genotypes in Human Cases of Diarrhea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1800-1802. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080239.

Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serogroups in Food and Patients, Germany [PDF - 145 KB - 4 pages]
D. Werber et al.

We compared 61 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups from 448 food isolates with 71 STEC serogroups from 1,447 isolates from patients in Germany. Two thirds (41/61), representing 72% of food isolates, were also found in patients. Serogroups typically isolated from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome were rarely found in food.

EID Werber D, Beutin L, Pichner R, Stark K, Fruth A. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serogroups in Food and Patients, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1803-1806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080361
AMA Werber D, Beutin L, Pichner R, et al. Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serogroups in Food and Patients, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1803-1806. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080361.
APA Werber, D., Beutin, L., Pichner, R., Stark, K., & Fruth, A. (2008). Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Serogroups in Food and Patients, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1803-1806. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080361.
Letters

Paralysis Case and Contact Spread of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Spain [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
A. Avellón et al.
EID Avellón A, Cabrerizo M, de Miguel T, Pérez-Breña P, Tenorio A, Pérez JL, et al. Paralysis Case and Contact Spread of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1807-1809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080517
AMA Avellón A, Cabrerizo M, de Miguel T, et al. Paralysis Case and Contact Spread of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1807-1809. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080517.
APA Avellón, A., Cabrerizo, M., de Miguel, T., Pérez-Breña, P., Tenorio, A., Pérez, J. L....Trallero, G. (2008). Paralysis Case and Contact Spread of Recombinant Vaccine–derived Poliovirus, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1807-1809. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080517.

Widespread Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A Viruses (H1N1), South Africa [PDF - 121 KB - 2 pages]
T. G. Besselaar et al.
EID Besselaar TG, Naidoo D, Buys A, Gregory V, McAnerney J, Manamela JM, et al. Widespread Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A Viruses (H1N1), South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1809-1810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080958
AMA Besselaar TG, Naidoo D, Buys A, et al. Widespread Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A Viruses (H1N1), South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1809-1810. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080958.
APA Besselaar, T. G., Naidoo, D., Buys, A., Gregory, V., McAnerney, J., Manamela, J. M....Schoub, B. D. (2008). Widespread Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A Viruses (H1N1), South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1809-1810. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080958.

Human Parvovirus 4 in Kidney Transplant Patients, France [PDF - 137 KB - 2 pages]
P. Biagini et al.
EID Biagini P, Dussol B, Touinssi M, Brunet P, Picard C, Moal V, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 in Kidney Transplant Patients, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1811-1812. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080862
AMA Biagini P, Dussol B, Touinssi M, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 in Kidney Transplant Patients, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1811-1812. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080862.
APA Biagini, P., Dussol, B., Touinssi, M., Brunet, P., Picard, C., Moal, V....de Micco, P. (2008). Human Parvovirus 4 in Kidney Transplant Patients, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1811-1812. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080862.

Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe [PDF - 185 KB - 3 pages]
G. Majoros et al.
EID Majoros G, Fehér Z, Deli T, Földvári G. Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1812-1814. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080479
AMA Majoros G, Fehér Z, Deli T, et al. Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1812-1814. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080479.
APA Majoros, G., Fehér, Z., Deli, T., & Földvári, G. (2008). Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1812-1814. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080479.

Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection, Algeria [PDF - 216 KB - 2 pages]
N. Mokrani et al.
EID Mokrani N, Parola P, Tebbal S, Dalichaouche M, Aouati A, Raoult D. Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1814-1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071221
AMA Mokrani N, Parola P, Tebbal S, et al. Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1814-1815. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071221.
APA Mokrani, N., Parola, P., Tebbal, S., Dalichaouche, M., Aouati, A., & Raoult, D. (2008). Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1814-1815. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071221.

Severe Malaria and Artesunate Treatment, Norway [PDF - 185 KB - 3 pages]
K. Mørch et al.
EID Mørch K, Strand Ø, Dunlop O, Berg Å, Langeland N, Leiva RA, et al. Severe Malaria and Artesunate Treatment, Norway. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1816-1818. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080636
AMA Mørch K, Strand Ø, Dunlop O, et al. Severe Malaria and Artesunate Treatment, Norway. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1816-1818. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080636.
APA Mørch, K., Strand, Ø., Dunlop, O., Berg, Å., Langeland, N., Leiva, R. A....Jensenius, M. (2008). Severe Malaria and Artesunate Treatment, Norway. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1816-1818. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080636.

Bacteremia Caused by Mycobacterium wolinskyi [PDF - 172 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Chen et al.
EID Chen Y, Jou R, Huang W, Huang S, Liu K, Lay C, et al. Bacteremia Caused by Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1818-1819. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080003
AMA Chen Y, Jou R, Huang W, et al. Bacteremia Caused by Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1818-1819. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080003.
APA Chen, Y., Jou, R., Huang, W., Huang, S., Liu, K., Lay, C....Su, Y. (2008). Bacteremia Caused by Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1818-1819. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080003.

Incubation Period for Human Cases of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection, China [PDF - 137 KB - 3 pages]
Y. Huai et al.
EID Huai Y, Xiang N, Zhou L, Feng L, Peng Z, Chapman RS, et al. Incubation Period for Human Cases of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1819-1821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080509
AMA Huai Y, Xiang N, Zhou L, et al. Incubation Period for Human Cases of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1819-1821. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080509.
APA Huai, Y., Xiang, N., Zhou, L., Feng, L., Peng, Z., Chapman, R. S....Yang, W. (2008). Incubation Period for Human Cases of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1819-1821. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080509.

Mycobacterium haemophilum Infection after Alemtuzumab Treatment [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
M. Kamboj et al.
EID Kamboj M, Louie E, Kiehn T, Papanicolaou G, Glickman M, Sepkowitz K. Mycobacterium haemophilum Infection after Alemtuzumab Treatment. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1821-1823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071321
AMA Kamboj M, Louie E, Kiehn T, et al. Mycobacterium haemophilum Infection after Alemtuzumab Treatment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1821-1823. doi:10.3201/eid1411.071321.
APA Kamboj, M., Louie, E., Kiehn, T., Papanicolaou, G., Glickman, M., & Sepkowitz, K. (2008). Mycobacterium haemophilum Infection after Alemtuzumab Treatment. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1821-1823. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.071321.

Prior Evidence of Putative Novel Rhinovirus Species, Australia [PDF - 149 KB - 3 pages]
I. M. Mackay et al.
EID Mackay IM, Lambert SB, McErlean PK, Faux CE, Arden KE, Nissen MD, et al. Prior Evidence of Putative Novel Rhinovirus Species, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1823-1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080725
AMA Mackay IM, Lambert SB, McErlean PK, et al. Prior Evidence of Putative Novel Rhinovirus Species, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1823-1825. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080725.
APA Mackay, I. M., Lambert, S. B., McErlean, P. K., Faux, C. E., Arden, K. E., Nissen, M. D....Sloots, T. P. (2008). Prior Evidence of Putative Novel Rhinovirus Species, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1823-1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080725.
Books and Media

Food-Borne Viruses: Progress and Challenges [PDF - 113 KB - 1 page]
M. Myrmel
EID Myrmel M. Food-Borne Viruses: Progress and Challenges. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1826. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080819
AMA Myrmel M. Food-Borne Viruses: Progress and Challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1826. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080819.
APA Myrmel, M. (2008). Food-Borne Viruses: Progress and Challenges. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1826. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080819.

Searching Eyes: Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America [PDF - 118 KB - 2 pages]
K. F. Gensheimer
EID Gensheimer KF. Searching Eyes: Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1826-1827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.081034
AMA Gensheimer KF. Searching Eyes: Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1826-1827. doi:10.3201/eid1411.081034.
APA Gensheimer, K. F. (2008). Searching Eyes: Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1826-1827. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.081034.

Emerging Pests and Vector-borne Diseases in Europe [PDF - 185 KB - 2 pages]
A. Van Gompel and W. Van Bortel
EID Van Gompel A, Van Bortel W. Emerging Pests and Vector-borne Diseases in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1827-1828. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080945
AMA Van Gompel A, Van Bortel W. Emerging Pests and Vector-borne Diseases in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1827-1828. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080945.
APA Van Gompel, A., & Van Bortel, W. (2008). Emerging Pests and Vector-borne Diseases in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1827-1828. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.080945.
About the Cover

The Extraordinary Nature of Illusion [PDF - 203 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. The Extraordinary Nature of Illusion. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1829-1830. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.ac1411
AMA Potter P. The Extraordinary Nature of Illusion. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1829-1830. doi:10.3201/eid1411.ac1411.
APA Potter, P. (2008). The Extraordinary Nature of Illusion. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1829-1830. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.ac1411.
Etymologia

etymologia: Chimera (ki-mir′ə) [PDF - 80 KB - 1 page]
EID etymologia: Chimera (ki-mir′ə). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.e11411
AMA etymologia: Chimera (ki-mir′ə). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1789. doi:10.3201/eid1411.e11411.
APA (2008). etymologia: Chimera (ki-mir′ə). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1789. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.e11411.
Corrections

Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9 [PDF - 131 KB - 1 page]
EID Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.c11411
AMA Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1825. doi:10.3201/eid1411.c11411.
APA (2008). Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.c11411.

Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9 [PDF - 131 KB - 1 page]
EID Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.c21411
AMA Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1825. doi:10.3201/eid1411.c21411.
APA (2008). Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.c21411.

Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9 [PDF - 131 KB - 1 page]
EID Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.c31411
AMA Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1825. doi:10.3201/eid1411.c31411.
APA (2008). Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.c31411.

Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9 [PDF - 131 KB - 1 page]
EID Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(11):1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.c41411
AMA Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(11):1825. doi:10.3201/eid1411.c41411.
APA (2008). Erratum—Vol. 14, No. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(11), 1825. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1411.c41411.
Page created: November 18, 2010
Page updated: November 18, 2010
Page reviewed: November 18, 2010
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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