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Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008


Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons

Jeffrey S. Hall1Comments to Author , Kevin T. Bentler, Gabrielle Landolt, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Minnis, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott C. Barras, J. Jeffrey Root, John Pilon, Kristy Pabilonia, Cindy Driscoll, Dennis Slate, Heather Sullivan, and Robert G. McLean
Author affiliations: US Department of Agriculture National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (J.S. Hall, K.T. Bentler, S.A. Elmore, J.J. Root, J. Pilon, H. Sullivan, R.G. McLean); Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Fort Collins (G. Landolt, K. Pabilonia); Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, USA (R.B. Minnis); US Department of Agriculture National Wildlife Research Center, Kingsville, Texas, USA (T.A. Campbell); US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services, Moreley, Virginia, USA (S.C. Barras); Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Oxford, Maryland, USA (C. Driscoll); US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services, Concord, New Hampshire, USA (D. Slate)

Main Article

Table 1

Exposure to avian influenza virus in wild raccoons in 7 states, United States*

State Year No. positive/no. tested (%) Influenza antibody subtypes (no.)
MD 2004 4/168 (2.4) H4 + H10† (1), 
H1 + H10† (1), H4† (2)
2005 0/13
GA 2004 0/366
CA 2006 0/46
TX 2004 0/40
2006 0/16
LA 2004 0/10
WY 2004 8/32 (25) H4N6 (7), H4N2 (1)
CO 2006 5/39 (12.8) H4N2 + N6 (3), H3† (1), H10N7 (1)

*H, hemagglutinin; N, neuraminidase.
†N subtype was not determined because of insufficient sample volume.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.