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Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008


Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons

Jeffrey S. Hall1Comments to Author , Kevin T. Bentler, Gabrielle Landolt, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Minnis, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott C. Barras, J. Jeffrey Root, John Pilon, Kristy Pabilonia, Cindy Driscoll, Dennis Slate, Heather Sullivan, and Robert G. McLean
Author affiliations: US Department of Agriculture National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (J.S. Hall, K.T. Bentler, S.A. Elmore, J.J. Root, J. Pilon, H. Sullivan, R.G. McLean); Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Fort Collins (G. Landolt, K. Pabilonia); Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, USA (R.B. Minnis); US Department of Agriculture National Wildlife Research Center, Kingsville, Texas, USA (T.A. Campbell); US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services, Moreley, Virginia, USA (S.C. Barras); Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Oxford, Maryland, USA (C. Driscoll); US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services, Concord, New Hampshire, USA (D. Slate)

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Table 2

Nasal shedding of avian influenza virus by experimentally inoculated raccoons*

Raccoon ID Day postinoculation
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
275 0.2
256 1.1
253 –-
262† 0.2 0.8 0.9 0.4
258 –-
259 1.1 0.1 0.4
263 0.6 0.2 0.9 0.02 0.4 0.1

*Shedding was determined by real-time reverse transcription–PCR of nasal swabs compared with standard curves generated from avian influenza virus stocks of known concentrations and expressed as log10 50% egg infectious dose equivalents. –, no viral RNA detected. Raccoons 262 and 263 were seropositive for avian influenza virus before inoculation.
†Uninoculated raccoons housed in cages adjacent to infected raccoons.
‡Raccoon humanely killed 8 days postinoculation.

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1Current affiliation: US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.