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Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008


Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Infection in Red Foxes Fed Infected Bird Carcasses

Leslie A. Reperant, Geert van Amerongen, Marco W.G. van de Bildt, Guus F. Rimmelzwaan, Andrew P. Dobson, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus, and Thijs KuikenComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (L.A. Reperant, A.P. Dobson); Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (G. van Amerongen, M.W.G. van de Bildt, G.F. Rimmelzwaan, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, T. Kuiken)

Main Article


Distribution of lesions and influenza virus antigen expression in experimentally infected red foxes*

Route of inoculation, fox no. Lesions
Influenza virus antigen
Lungs Heart Brain Lungs Heart Brain
Intratracheal inoculation
1 +++ +
2 +++ + ++ ++ + +++

Fed infected bird carcasses
5 +
7 +

*Foxes were infected either intratracheally with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus (H5N1) or by being fed chicks infected with HPAI virus (H5N1); they were examined at 7 days postinoculation. Respiratory lesions, extrarespiratory lesions, or influenza virus antigen expression were not observed in negative-control foxes. –, absence of lesions (no cells expressing the influenza virus antigen); +, mild and focal or multifocal lesions (few cells expressing the influenza virus antigen); ++, moderate and multifocal lesions (moderate number of cells expressing the influenza virus antigen); +++, severe and extensive lesions (numerous cells expressing the influenza virus antigen).

Main Article