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Volume 15, Number 11—November 2009


Risk of Importing Zoonotic Diseases through Wildlife Trade, United States

Boris I. PavlinComments to Author , Lisa M. Schloegel, and Peter Daszak
Author affiliations: World Health Organization, Palikir, Federated States of Micronesia (B.I. Pavlin); Wildlife Trust, New York, New York, USA (L.M. Schloegel, P. Daszak)

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Table 1

Risk zoonoses and their associated clinical syndromes in humans*

Pathogen Primary clinical syndrome in humans
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Aseptic meningitis
Cercopithecine herpesvirus-1 
 (herpes B) Encephalitis
Nipah virus Encephalitis
Rabies viruses† Encephalitis
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Encephalitis
Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex† Encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
 virus Hemorrhagic fever
Ebola viruses† Hemorrhagic fever
Lassa fever virus Hemorrhagic fever
Marburg virus Hemorrhagic fever
Rift Valley fever virus Hemorrhagic fever
South American hemorrhagic fever
 arenaviruses† Hemorrhagic fever
Hantaviruses associated with HFRS† Hemorrhagic fever with nephropathy
Hantaviruses associated with HCPS† Severe respiratory syndrome
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus Severe respiratory syndrome
SARS virus (or SARS-like CoV) Severe respiratory syndrome
Yellow fever virus Systemic illness or hemorrhagic fever
Monkeypox virus
Systemic illness or rash
Brucella spp. Systemic illness
Coxiella burnetii Systemic illness
Leptospira spp. Systemic illness
Bacillus anthracis Varies by site of infection
Burkholderia mallei Varies by site of infection
Francisella tularensis Varies by site of infection
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex† Varies by site of infection
Yersinia pestis
Varies by site of infection
Helminths, Echinococcus spp. Hydatid cyst disease

*Risk zoonoses, relevant zoonotic diseases at risk for importation into the United States; HFRS, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; HCPS, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; CoV, coronavirus.
†Rabies viruses includes the zoonotic lyssaviruses Australian bat lyssavirus, Duvenhage, European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2, Mokolo, and rabies (11); tick-borne encephalitis complex includes Kyasanur Forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and tickborne encephalitis (11); Ebolaviruses include Bundibugyo, Côte d'Ivoire, Reston, Sudan, and Zaire (11); epidemiologically relevant South American hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses include Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, and Sabia (11); hantaviruses associated with HFRS include Dobrava, Hantaan, Puumala, Saaremaa, and Seoul (11); hantaviruses associated with HCPS include Andes, Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Laguna Negra, New York, and Sin Nombre (11); Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species are M. africanum, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. caprae, M. microti, M. pinnipedii, and M. tuberculosis hominis (12).

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