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Issue Cover for Volume 15, Number 11—November 2009

Volume 15, Number 11—November 2009

[PDF - 5.00 MB - 183 pages]

Perspective

Health Status of Visitors and Temporary Residents, United States [PDF - 119 KB - 6 pages]
E. A. Yanni et al.

Human mobility has always been associated with the spread of infection, and mobility of nonimmigrant visitors and temporary residents to the United States is increasing, from ≈12 million in 1987 to ≈37 million in 2007. Lack of information about the health status of these populations upon arrival and their need for and use of medical services in the United States hinders development of public health policy, education, and provision of adequate clinical care. After these issues and needs are clarified, intervention programs should be developed to increase access and decrease the disparities of care experienced by these populations.

EID Yanni EA, Marano N, Stauffer WM, Barnett ED, Cano M, Cetron MS. Health Status of Visitors and Temporary Residents, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1715-1720. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090938
AMA Yanni EA, Marano N, Stauffer WM, et al. Health Status of Visitors and Temporary Residents, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1715-1720. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090938.
APA Yanni, E. A., Marano, N., Stauffer, W. M., Barnett, E. D., Cano, M., & Cetron, M. S. (2009). Health Status of Visitors and Temporary Residents, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1715-1720. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090938.

Risk of Importing Zoonotic Diseases through Wildlife Trade, United States [PDF - 141 KB - 6 pages]
B. I. Pavlin et al.

The United States is the world’s largest wildlife importer, and imported wild animals represent a potential source of zoonotic pathogens. Using data on mammals imported during 2000–2005, we assessed their potential to host 27 selected risk zoonoses and created a risk assessment that could inform policy making for wildlife importation and zoonotic disease surveillance. A total of 246,772 mammals in 190 genera (68 families) were imported. The most widespread agents of risk zoonoses were rabies virus (in 78 genera of mammals), Bacillus anthracis (57), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (48), Echinococcus spp. (41), and Leptospira spp. (35). Genera capable of harboring the greatest number of risk zoonoses were Canis and Felis (14 each), Rattus (13), Equus (11), and Macaca and Lepus (10 each). These findings demonstrate the myriad opportunities for zoonotic pathogens to be imported and suggest that, to ensure public safety, immediate proactive changes are needed at multiple levels.

EID Pavlin BI, Schloegel LM, Daszak P. Risk of Importing Zoonotic Diseases through Wildlife Trade, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1721-1726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090467
AMA Pavlin BI, Schloegel LM, Daszak P. Risk of Importing Zoonotic Diseases through Wildlife Trade, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1721-1726. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090467.
APA Pavlin, B. I., Schloegel, L. M., & Daszak, P. (2009). Risk of Importing Zoonotic Diseases through Wildlife Trade, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1721-1726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090467.

Population Mobility, Globalization, and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance [PDF - 123 KB - 5 pages]
D. W. MacPherson et al.
EID MacPherson DW, Gushulak BD, Baine WB, Bala S, Gubbins PO, Holtom P, et al. Population Mobility, Globalization, and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1727-1731. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090419
AMA MacPherson DW, Gushulak BD, Baine WB, et al. Population Mobility, Globalization, and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1727-1731. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090419.
APA MacPherson, D. W., Gushulak, B. D., Baine, W. B., Bala, S., Gubbins, P. O., Holtom, P....Segarra-Newnham, M. (2009). Population Mobility, Globalization, and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1727-1731. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090419.
Synopses

Public Health Response to Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Australia, 2007
J. A. Carnie et al.

Australia, along with 36 other countries in the Western Pacific Region, was declared free of poliomyelitis by the World Health Organization in October 2000. Yet, the persistence of wild poliovirus in the 4 remaining polio-endemic countries—Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan—poses a risk for its importation into all countries declared polio free. We describe the public health response and outcomes resulting from the importation of a wild poliovirus infection in Melbourne, Australia, in July 2007. This response, based on an assessment of the risk for transmission, included offering vaccination with inactivated polio vaccine to the contacts and placing the index patient in isolation and the household contacts in quarantine until consecutive fecal specimens were negative for poliovirus by culture. The experience gained from the polio importation event in Australia may assist other polio-free countries to prepare for, and respond to, a similar event. No secondary clinical cases resulted from this importation.

EID Carnie JA, Lester R, Moran R, Brown L, Meagher J, Roberts JA, et al. Public Health Response to Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Australia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1733-1737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090027
AMA Carnie JA, Lester R, Moran R, et al. Public Health Response to Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Australia, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1733-1737. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090027.
APA Carnie, J. A., Lester, R., Moran, R., Brown, L., Meagher, J., Roberts, J. A....Thorley, B. R. (2009). Public Health Response to Imported Case of Poliomyelitis, Australia, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1733-1737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090027.
Research

Hepatitis E Outbreak on Cruise Ship [PDF - 180 KB - 7 pages]
B. Said et al.

In 2008, acute hepatitis E infection was confirmed in 4 passengers returning to the United Kingdom after a world cruise. Epidemiologic investigation showed that of 789 persons who provided blood samples, 195 (25%) were seropositive, 33 (4%) had immunoglobulin [Ig] M levels consistent with recent acute infection (11 of these persons were symptomatic), and 162 (21%) had IgG only, consistent with past infection. Passenger mean age was 68 years. Most (426/789, 54%) passengers were female, yet most with acute infection (25/33, 76%) were male. Sequencing of RNA from 3 case-patients identified hepatitis E virus genotype 3, closely homologous to genotype 3 viruses from Europe. Significant association with acute infection was found for being male, drinking alcohol, and consuming shellfish while on board (odds ratio 4.27, 95% confidence interval 1.23–26.94, p = 0.019). This was probably a common-source foodborne outbreak.

EID Said B, Ijaz S, Kafatos G, Booth L, Thomas H, Walsh A, et al. Hepatitis E Outbreak on Cruise Ship. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1738-1744. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091094
AMA Said B, Ijaz S, Kafatos G, et al. Hepatitis E Outbreak on Cruise Ship. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1738-1744. doi:10.3201/eid1511.091094.
APA Said, B., Ijaz, S., Kafatos, G., Booth, L., Thomas, H., Walsh, A....Morgan, D. (2009). Hepatitis E Outbreak on Cruise Ship. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1738-1744. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091094.

Imported Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, Spain [PDF - 197 KB - 8 pages]
B. Monge-Maillo et al.

Migration has contributed to the emergence of certain infectious diseases. To determine which infectious diseases were most common among 2 mobile immigrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans and Latin Americans) in Spain, we analyzed health and demographic characteristics of 2,198 immigrants referred to the Tropical Medicine Unit of Ramón y Cajal Hospital over a 20-year period. The most frequent diagnoses were for latent tuberculosis (716 patients [32.6%]), filariasis (421 [19.2%]), hepatropic virus chronic infection (262 [19.2%]), intestinal parasites (242 [11.0%]), and malaria (212 [9.6%]). Health screening of immigrant populations is needed to ensure early diagnosis and treatment of potentially transmissible infections.

EID Monge-Maillo B, Jiménez BC, Pérez-Molina JA, Norman FF, Navarro M, Pérez-Ayala A, et al. Imported Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1745-1752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090718
AMA Monge-Maillo B, Jiménez BC, Pérez-Molina JA, et al. Imported Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1745-1752. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090718.
APA Monge-Maillo, B., Jiménez, B. C., Pérez-Molina, J. A., Norman, F. F., Navarro, M., Pérez-Ayala, A....López-Vélez, R. (2009). Imported Infectious Diseases in Mobile Populations, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1745-1752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090718.

Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Involving Substandard Antimalarial Drugs, Pakistan, 2003
T. Leslie et al.

Because of instability in eastern Afghanistan, new refugees crossed into the federally administered tribal areas of northwestern Pakistan in 2002. In 2003, we investigated an epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 1 of the camps. Incidence was 100.4 cases/1,000 person-years; in other nearby camps it was only 2.1/1,000 person-years. Anopheline mosquitoes were found despite an earlier spray campaign. Documented clinical failures at the basic health unit prompted a drug resistance survey of locally manufactured sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine used for routine treatment. The in vivo failure rate was 28.5%. PCR analysis of the P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihyropteroate synthase genes showed no mutations associated with clinical failure. However, chemical analysis of the drug showed that it was substandard. As global incidence decreases and epidemics become more of a threat, enhanced quality assurance of control interventions is essential.

EID Leslie T, Kaur H, Mohammed N, Kolaczinski K, Ord RL, Rowland M. Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Involving Substandard Antimalarial Drugs, Pakistan, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1753-1759. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090886
AMA Leslie T, Kaur H, Mohammed N, et al. Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Involving Substandard Antimalarial Drugs, Pakistan, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1753-1759. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090886.
APA Leslie, T., Kaur, H., Mohammed, N., Kolaczinski, K., Ord, R. L., & Rowland, M. (2009). Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Involving Substandard Antimalarial Drugs, Pakistan, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1753-1759. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090886.

Epidemiology of Hepatitis A Virus Infections, Germany, 2007–2008 [PDF - 329 KB - 9 pages]
M. S. Faber et al.
EID Faber MS, Stark K, Behnke SC, Schreier E, Frank C. Epidemiology of Hepatitis A Virus Infections, Germany, 2007–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1760-1768. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090214
AMA Faber MS, Stark K, Behnke SC, et al. Epidemiology of Hepatitis A Virus Infections, Germany, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1760-1768. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090214.
APA Faber, M. S., Stark, K., Behnke, S. C., Schreier, E., & Frank, C. (2009). Epidemiology of Hepatitis A Virus Infections, Germany, 2007–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1760-1768. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090214.

Screening Practices for Infectious Diseases among Burmese Refugees in Australia [PDF - 250 KB - 4 pages]
N. J. Chaves et al.

Increasing numbers of refugees from Burma (Myanmar) are resettling in Western countries. We performed a retrospective study of 156 Burmese refugees at an Australian teaching hospital. Of those tested, Helicobacter pylori infection affected 80%, latent tuberculosis 70%, vitamin D deficiency 37%, and strongyloidiasis 26%. Treating these diseases can prevent long-term illness.

EID Chaves NJ, Gibney KB, Leder K, O’Brien DP, Marshall C, Biggs B. Screening Practices for Infectious Diseases among Burmese Refugees in Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1769-1772. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090777
AMA Chaves NJ, Gibney KB, Leder K, et al. Screening Practices for Infectious Diseases among Burmese Refugees in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1769-1772. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090777.
APA Chaves, N. J., Gibney, K. B., Leder, K., O’Brien, D. P., Marshall, C., & Biggs, B. (2009). Screening Practices for Infectious Diseases among Burmese Refugees in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1769-1772. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090777.

Illness in Long-Term Travelers Visiting GeoSentinel Clinics [PDF - 353 KB - 10 pages]
L. H. Chen et al.
EID Chen LH, Wilson ME, Davis X, Loutan L, Schwartz E, Keystone JS, et al. Illness in Long-Term Travelers Visiting GeoSentinel Clinics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1773-1782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090945
AMA Chen LH, Wilson ME, Davis X, et al. Illness in Long-Term Travelers Visiting GeoSentinel Clinics. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1773-1782. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090945.
APA Chen, L. H., Wilson, M. E., Davis, X., Loutan, L., Schwartz, E., Keystone, J. S....Schlagenhauf, P. (2009). Illness in Long-Term Travelers Visiting GeoSentinel Clinics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1773-1782. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090945.

Multicenter EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel Study of Travel-related Infectious Diseases in Europe [PDF - 201 KB - 8 pages]
P. Gautret et al.

We analyzed prospective data on 17,228 European patients who sought treatment at GeoSentinel sites from 1997 to 2007. Gastrointestinal illness (particularly in tourists), fever (those visiting friends and relatives [VFRs]), and skin disorders (in tourists) were the most common reasons for seeking medical care. Diagnoses varied by country of origin, region visited, or categories of travelers. VFRs who returned from sub-Saharan Africa and Indian Ocean islands were more likely to experience falciparum malaria than any other group. Multiple correspondence analysis identified Italian, French, and Swiss VFRs and expatriate travelers to sub-Saharan Africa and Indian Ocean Islands as most likely to exhibit febrile illnesses. German tourists to Southeast and south-central Asia were most likely to seek treatment for acute diarrhea. Non-European travelers (12,663 patients from other industrialized countries) were less likely to acquire certain travel-associated infectious diseases. These results should be considered in the practice of travel medicine and development of health recommendations for European travelers.

EID Gautret P, Schlagenhauf P, Gaudart J, Castelli F, Brouqui P, von Sonnenburg F, et al. Multicenter EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel Study of Travel-related Infectious Diseases in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1783-1790. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091147
AMA Gautret P, Schlagenhauf P, Gaudart J, et al. Multicenter EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel Study of Travel-related Infectious Diseases in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1783-1790. doi:10.3201/eid1511.091147.
APA Gautret, P., Schlagenhauf, P., Gaudart, J., Castelli, F., Brouqui, P., von Sonnenburg, F....Parola, P. (2009). Multicenter EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel Study of Travel-related Infectious Diseases in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1783-1790. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091147.

Medscape CME Activity
Multicenter GeoSentinel Analysis of Rickettsial Diseases in International Travelers, 1996–2008 [PDF - 129 KB - 8 pages]
M. Jensenius et al.
EID Jensenius M, Davis X, von Sonnenburg F, Schwartz E, Keystone JS, Leder K, et al. Multicenter GeoSentinel Analysis of Rickettsial Diseases in International Travelers, 1996–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1791-1798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090677
AMA Jensenius M, Davis X, von Sonnenburg F, et al. Multicenter GeoSentinel Analysis of Rickettsial Diseases in International Travelers, 1996–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1791-1798. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090677.
APA Jensenius, M., Davis, X., von Sonnenburg, F., Schwartz, E., Keystone, J. S., Leder, K....Parola, P. (2009). Multicenter GeoSentinel Analysis of Rickettsial Diseases in International Travelers, 1996–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1791-1798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090677.
Dispatches

Burkholderia pseudomallei Misidentified by Automated System [PDF - 259 KB - 3 pages]
C. Weissert et al.

After returning from Thailand, a 35-year-old man from Switzerland was hospitalized with an abscess of the head. Material cultured from the abscess and adjacent bone grew a gram-negative rod, which was misidentified by an automated microbiology system as Burkholderia cepacia. The organism was eventually identified by molecular methods as B. pseudomallei.

EID Weissert C, Dollenmaier G, Rafeiner P, Riehm JM, Schultze D. Burkholderia pseudomallei Misidentified by Automated System. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1799-1801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.081719
AMA Weissert C, Dollenmaier G, Rafeiner P, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei Misidentified by Automated System. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1799-1801. doi:10.3201/eid1511.081719.
APA Weissert, C., Dollenmaier, G., Rafeiner, P., Riehm, J. M., & Schultze, D. (2009). Burkholderia pseudomallei Misidentified by Automated System. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1799-1801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.081719.

HIV Infection among Illegal Migrants, Italy, 2004–2007 [PDF - 129 KB - 3 pages]
M. C. Pezzoli et al.

To determine HIV prevalence and place of exposure for illegal migrants in Italy, we tested 3,003 illegal adult migrants for HIV; 29 (0.97%) were HIV positive. Antibody avidity index results (indicators of time of infection) were available for 27 of those persons and showed that 6 (22.2%) presumably acquired their infection after migration.

EID Pezzoli MC, El Hamad I, Scarcella C, Vassallo F, Speziani F, Cristini G, et al. HIV Infection among Illegal Migrants, Italy, 2004–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1802-1804. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090908
AMA Pezzoli MC, El Hamad I, Scarcella C, et al. HIV Infection among Illegal Migrants, Italy, 2004–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1802-1804. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090908.
APA Pezzoli, M. C., El Hamad, I., Scarcella, C., Vassallo, F., Speziani, F., Cristini, G....Castelli, F. (2009). HIV Infection among Illegal Migrants, Italy, 2004–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1802-1804. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090908.

Serologic Analysis of Returned Travelers with Fever, Sweden [PDF - 304 KB - 4 pages]
H. H. Askling et al.

We studied 1,432 febrile travelers from Sweden who had returned from malaria-endemic areas during March 2005–March 2008. In 383 patients, paired serum samples were blindly analyzed for influenza and 7 other agents. For 21% of 115 patients with fever of unknown origin, serologic analysis showed that influenza was the major cause.

EID Askling HH, Lesko B, Vene S, Berndtson A, Björkman P, Bläckberg J, et al. Serologic Analysis of Returned Travelers with Fever, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1805-1808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091157
AMA Askling HH, Lesko B, Vene S, et al. Serologic Analysis of Returned Travelers with Fever, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1805-1808. doi:10.3201/eid1511.091157.
APA Askling, H. H., Lesko, B., Vene, S., Berndtson, A., Björkman, P., Bläckberg, J....Struwe, J. (2009). Serologic Analysis of Returned Travelers with Fever, Sweden. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1805-1808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091157.

Imported Melioidosis, Israel, 2008 [PDF - 263 KB - 3 pages]
A. Cahn et al.

In 2008, melioidosis was diagnosed in an agricultural worker from Thailand in the southern Jordan Valley in Israel. He had newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, fever, multiple abscesses, and osteomyelitis. Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from urine and blood. Four of 10 laboratory staff members exposed to the organism received chemoprophylaxis, 3 of whom had adverse events.

EID Cahn A, Koslowsky B, Nir-Paz R, Temper V, Hiller N, Karlinsky A, et al. Imported Melioidosis, Israel, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1809-1811. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090038
AMA Cahn A, Koslowsky B, Nir-Paz R, et al. Imported Melioidosis, Israel, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1809-1811. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090038.
APA Cahn, A., Koslowsky, B., Nir-Paz, R., Temper, V., Hiller, N., Karlinsky, A....Block, C. (2009). Imported Melioidosis, Israel, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1809-1811. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090038.

Wealth Inequality and Tuberculosis Elimination in Europe [PDF - 242 KB - 3 pages]
J. E. Suk et al.

In Europe, wealth inequality is directly related to tuberculosis (TB) notification (R2 = 0.69), while in countries with lower TB rates, higher proportions of TB cases occur in foreign-born persons. Particularly during times of financial upheaval, efforts to eliminate TB must address social inequality.

EID Suk JE, Manissero D, Büscher G, Semenza JC. Wealth Inequality and Tuberculosis Elimination in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1812-1814. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090916
AMA Suk JE, Manissero D, Büscher G, et al. Wealth Inequality and Tuberculosis Elimination in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1812-1814. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090916.
APA Suk, J. E., Manissero, D., Büscher, G., & Semenza, J. C. (2009). Wealth Inequality and Tuberculosis Elimination in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1812-1814. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090916.

Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Northeastern Peru, 2008 [PDF - 386 KB - 4 pages]
B. M. Forshey et al.

In 2008, dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) emerged in northeastern Peru, causing a large outbreak and displacing DENV-3, which had predominated for the previous 6 years. Phylogenetic analysis of 2008 and 2009 isolates support their inclusion into DENV-4 genotype II, forming a lineage distinct from strains that had previously circulated in the region.

EID Forshey BM, Morrison AC, Cruz C, Rocha C, Vilcarromero S, Guevara C, et al. Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Northeastern Peru, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1815-1818. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090663
AMA Forshey BM, Morrison AC, Cruz C, et al. Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Northeastern Peru, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1815-1818. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090663.
APA Forshey, B. M., Morrison, A. C., Cruz, C., Rocha, C., Vilcarromero, S., Guevara, C....Kochel, T. J. (2009). Dengue Virus Serotype 4, Northeastern Peru, 2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1815-1818. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090663.

Hepatitis C Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors, Anyang, China [PDF - 313 KB - 4 pages]
F. Liu et al.

Hepatitis C virus screening was conducted among 8,226 residents 25–65 years of age in 4 counties of China; virus prevalence was 0.9%. A subsequent case–control study indicated blood transfusion (odds ratio [OR] 4.55), esophageal balloon examination (OR 3.78), and intravenous injection (OR 5.83) were associated with infection.

EID Liu F, Chen K, He Z, Ning T, Pan Y, Cai H, et al. Hepatitis C Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors, Anyang, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1819-1822. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090263
AMA Liu F, Chen K, He Z, et al. Hepatitis C Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors, Anyang, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1819-1822. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090263.
APA Liu, F., Chen, K., He, Z., Ning, T., Pan, Y., Cai, H....Ke, Y. (2009). Hepatitis C Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors, Anyang, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1819-1822. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090263.

Travel-related Schistosomiasis Acquired in Laos [PDF - 202 KB - 4 pages]
E. Leshem et al.

Twelve Israeli travelers acquired schistosomiasis in Laos during 2002–2008, and 7 of them had acute schistosomiasis. The patients were probably exposed to Schistosoma mekongi in southern Laos, an area known to be endemic for schistosomiasis. Four possibly were infected in northern Laos, where reports of schistosomiasis are rare.

EID Leshem E, Schwartz E, Marva E, Schwartz E. Travel-related Schistosomiasis Acquired in Laos. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1823-1826. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090611
AMA Leshem E, Schwartz E, Marva E, et al. Travel-related Schistosomiasis Acquired in Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1823-1826. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090611.
APA Leshem, E., Schwartz, E., Marva, E., & Schwartz, E. (2009). Travel-related Schistosomiasis Acquired in Laos. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1823-1826. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090611.

Buruli Ulcer in United Kingdom Tourist Returning from Latin America [PDF - 305 KB - 3 pages]
H. McGann et al.

We report a case of Buruli ulcer in a tourist from the United Kingdom. The disease was almost certainly acquired in Brazil, where only 1 case had previously been reported. The delay in diagnosis highlights the need for physicians to be aware of the disease and its epidemiology.

EID McGann H, Stragier P, Portaels F, Gascoyne-Binzi D, Collyns T, Lucas S, et al. Buruli Ulcer in United Kingdom Tourist Returning from Latin America. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1827-1829. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090460
AMA McGann H, Stragier P, Portaels F, et al. Buruli Ulcer in United Kingdom Tourist Returning from Latin America. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1827-1829. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090460.
APA McGann, H., Stragier, P., Portaels, F., Gascoyne-Binzi, D., Collyns, T., Lucas, S....Mawer, D. (2009). Buruli Ulcer in United Kingdom Tourist Returning from Latin America. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1827-1829. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090460.

Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon [PDF - 175 KB - 3 pages]
R. S. Azevedo et al.

In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.

EID Azevedo RS, Silva EV, Carvalho VL, Rodrigues SG, Neto JP, Monteiro HA, et al. Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1830-1832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090461
AMA Azevedo RS, Silva EV, Carvalho VL, et al. Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1830-1832. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090461.
APA Azevedo, R. S., Silva, E. V., Carvalho, V. L., Rodrigues, S. G., Neto, J. P., Monteiro, H. A....Vasconcelos, P. (2009). Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1830-1832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090461.

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in 4 US Soldiers, South Korea, 2005 [PDF - 283 KB - 4 pages]
J. Song et al.

Four US soldiers acquired hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome while training near the Demilitarized Zone, South Korea, in 2005. Hantaan virus sequences were amplified by reverse transcription–PCR from patient serum samples and from lung tissues of striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) captured at training sites. Epidemiologic investigations specified the ecology of possible sites of patient infection.

EID Song J, Moon S, Gu S, Song K, Baek LJ, Kim HC, et al. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in 4 US Soldiers, South Korea, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1833-1836. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090076
AMA Song J, Moon S, Gu S, et al. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in 4 US Soldiers, South Korea, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1833-1836. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090076.
APA Song, J., Moon, S., Gu, S., Song, K., Baek, L. J., Kim, H. C....Klein, T. A. (2009). Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in 4 US Soldiers, South Korea, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1833-1836. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090076.

Fatal Case of Enterovirus 71 Infection, France, 2007 [PDF - 227 KB - 4 pages]
S. Vallet et al.

A fatal case of enterovirus 71 infection with pulmonary edema and rhombencephalitis occurred in Brest, France, in April 2007. The virus was identified as subgenogroup C2. This highly neurotropic enterovirus merits specific surveillance outside the Asia-Pacific region.

EID Vallet S, Legrand-Quillien M, Dailland T, Podeur G, Gouriou S, Schuffenecker I, et al. Fatal Case of Enterovirus 71 Infection, France, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1837-1840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090493
AMA Vallet S, Legrand-Quillien M, Dailland T, et al. Fatal Case of Enterovirus 71 Infection, France, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1837-1840. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090493.
APA Vallet, S., Legrand-Quillien, M., Dailland, T., Podeur, G., Gouriou, S., Schuffenecker, I....Marcorelles, P. (2009). Fatal Case of Enterovirus 71 Infection, France, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1837-1840. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090493.

Evidence-based Tool for Triggering School Closures during Influenza Outbreaks, Japan [PDF - 250 KB - 3 pages]
A. Sasaki et al.

Guidelines available to school administrators to support school closure decisions during influenza outbreaks are usually not evidence-based. Using empirical data on absentee rates of elementary school students in Japan, we developed a simple and practical algorithm for determining the optimal timing of school closures for control of influenza outbreaks.

EID Sasaki A, Hoen AG, Ozonoff A, Suzuki H, Tanabe N, Seki N, et al. Evidence-based Tool for Triggering School Closures during Influenza Outbreaks, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1841-1843. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090798
AMA Sasaki A, Hoen AG, Ozonoff A, et al. Evidence-based Tool for Triggering School Closures during Influenza Outbreaks, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1841-1843. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090798.
APA Sasaki, A., Hoen, A. G., Ozonoff, A., Suzuki, H., Tanabe, N., Seki, N....Brownstein, J. S. (2009). Evidence-based Tool for Triggering School Closures during Influenza Outbreaks, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1841-1843. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090798.

Dirofilaria repens Infection and Concomitant Meningoencephalitis [PDF - 339 KB - 3 pages]
S. Poppert et al.

Dirofilaria repens, a filarial nematode of dogs and other carnivores, can accidentally infect humans. Clinical symptoms are usually restricted to a subcutaneous nodule containing a single infertile parasite. Here, we report a case of D. repens infection with a subcutaneous gravid worm and the patient’s concomitant meningoencephalitis and aphasia.

EID Poppert S, Hodapp M, Krueger A, Hegasy G, Niesen W, Kern WV, et al. Dirofilaria repens Infection and Concomitant Meningoencephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1844-1846. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090936
AMA Poppert S, Hodapp M, Krueger A, et al. Dirofilaria repens Infection and Concomitant Meningoencephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1844-1846. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090936.
APA Poppert, S., Hodapp, M., Krueger, A., Hegasy, G., Niesen, W., Kern, W. V....Tannich, E. (2009). Dirofilaria repens Infection and Concomitant Meningoencephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1844-1846. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090936.
Commentaries

Globally Mobile Populations and the Spread of Emerging Pathogens [PDF - 158 KB - 8 pages]
P. M. Arguin et al.
EID Arguin PM, Marano N, Freedman DO. Globally Mobile Populations and the Spread of Emerging Pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1713-1714. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091426
AMA Arguin PM, Marano N, Freedman DO. Globally Mobile Populations and the Spread of Emerging Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1713-1714. doi:10.3201/eid1511.091426.
APA Arguin, P. M., Marano, N., & Freedman, D. O. (2009). Globally Mobile Populations and the Spread of Emerging Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1713-1714. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091426.
Letters

Preexisting Immunity to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 [PDF - 158 KB - 3 pages]
Z. Xing and C. J. Cardona
EID Xing Z, Cardona CJ. Preexisting Immunity to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1847-1849. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090685
AMA Xing Z, Cardona CJ. Preexisting Immunity to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1847-1849. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090685.
APA Xing, Z., & Cardona, C. J. (2009). Preexisting Immunity to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1847-1849. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090685.

Serologic Survey of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Guangxi Province, China [PDF - 143 KB - 3 pages]
H. Chen et al.
EID Chen H, Wang Y, Fang L, Zhang J, Dong B, Fan X, et al. Serologic Survey of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Guangxi Province, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1849-1850. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090868
AMA Chen H, Wang Y, Fang L, et al. Serologic Survey of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Guangxi Province, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1849-1850. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090868.
APA Chen, H., Wang, Y., Fang, L., Zhang, J., Dong, B., Fan, X....Guan, Y. (2009). Serologic Survey of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Guangxi Province, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1849-1850. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090868.

Antiviral Drugs for Treatment of Patients Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus [PDF - 143 KB - 2 pages]
D. M. Hartley et al.
EID Hartley DM, Nelson NP, Perencevich EN. Antiviral Drugs for Treatment of Patients Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1851-1852. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090720
AMA Hartley DM, Nelson NP, Perencevich EN. Antiviral Drugs for Treatment of Patients Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1851-1852. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090720.
APA Hartley, D. M., Nelson, N. P., & Perencevich, E. N. (2009). Antiviral Drugs for Treatment of Patients Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1851-1852. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090720.

Imported Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis [PDF - 209 KB - 3 pages]
G. Lapadula et al.
EID Lapadula G, Viganò F, Fortuna P, Dolara A, Bramati S, Soria A, et al. Imported Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1852-1854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090833
AMA Lapadula G, Viganò F, Fortuna P, et al. Imported Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1852-1854. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090833.
APA Lapadula, G., Viganò, F., Fortuna, P., Dolara, A., Bramati, S., Soria, A....Gori, A. (2009). Imported Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Neisseria meningitidis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1852-1854. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090833.

Imported Chikungunya Virus Strains, Taiwan, 2006–2009
J. Huang et al.
EID Huang J, Yang C, Su C, Chang S, Cheng C, Yu S, et al. Imported Chikungunya Virus Strains, Taiwan, 2006–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1854-1856. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090398
AMA Huang J, Yang C, Su C, et al. Imported Chikungunya Virus Strains, Taiwan, 2006–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1854-1856. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090398.
APA Huang, J., Yang, C., Su, C., Chang, S., Cheng, C., Yu, S....Shu, P. (2009). Imported Chikungunya Virus Strains, Taiwan, 2006–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1854-1856. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090398.

Cutaneous Larva Migrans Acquired in Brittany, France [PDF - 180 KB - 3 pages]
N. Tamminga et al.
EID Tamminga N, Bierman WF, de Vries PJ. Cutaneous Larva Migrans Acquired in Brittany, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1856-1858. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090261
AMA Tamminga N, Bierman WF, de Vries PJ. Cutaneous Larva Migrans Acquired in Brittany, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1856-1858. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090261.
APA Tamminga, N., Bierman, W. F., & de Vries, P. J. (2009). Cutaneous Larva Migrans Acquired in Brittany, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1856-1858. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090261.

European Perspective of 2-Person Rule for Biosafety Level 4 Laboratories [PDF - 140 KB - 3 pages]
G. Ippolito et al.
EID Ippolito G, Nisii C, Di Caro A, Brown D, Gopal R, Hewson R, et al. European Perspective of 2-Person Rule for Biosafety Level 4 Laboratories. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1858-1860. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091134
AMA Ippolito G, Nisii C, Di Caro A, et al. European Perspective of 2-Person Rule for Biosafety Level 4 Laboratories. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1858-1860. doi:10.3201/eid1511.091134.
APA Ippolito, G., Nisii, C., Di Caro, A., Brown, D., Gopal, R., Hewson, R....Capobianchi, M. R. (2009). European Perspective of 2-Person Rule for Biosafety Level 4 Laboratories. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1858-1860. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091134.

Hajj Pilgrims’ Knowledge about Acute Respiratory Infections [PDF - 151 KB - 2 pages]
P. Gautret et al.
EID Gautret P, Soula G, Parola P, Brouqui P. Hajj Pilgrims’ Knowledge about Acute Respiratory Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1861-1862. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090201
AMA Gautret P, Soula G, Parola P, et al. Hajj Pilgrims’ Knowledge about Acute Respiratory Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1861-1862. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090201.
APA Gautret, P., Soula, G., Parola, P., & Brouqui, P. (2009). Hajj Pilgrims’ Knowledge about Acute Respiratory Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1861-1862. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090201.

Persistent Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Urinary Tract Infection [PDF - 174 KB - 3 pages]
J. DeBusscher et al.
EID DeBusscher J, Zhang L, Buxton M, Foxman B, Barbosa-Cesnik C. Persistent Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Urinary Tract Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1862-1864. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.081501
AMA DeBusscher J, Zhang L, Buxton M, et al. Persistent Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Urinary Tract Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1862-1864. doi:10.3201/eid1511.081501.
APA DeBusscher, J., Zhang, L., Buxton, M., Foxman, B., & Barbosa-Cesnik, C. (2009). Persistent Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Urinary Tract Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1862-1864. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.081501.

Leishmania killicki Imported from Tunisian Desert [PDF - 148 KB - 2 pages]
D. Maubon et al.
EID Maubon D, Thurot-Guillou C, Ravel C, Leccia M, Pelloux H. Leishmania killicki Imported from Tunisian Desert. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1864-1865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090148
AMA Maubon D, Thurot-Guillou C, Ravel C, et al. Leishmania killicki Imported from Tunisian Desert. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1864-1865. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090148.
APA Maubon, D., Thurot-Guillou, C., Ravel, C., Leccia, M., & Pelloux, H. (2009). Leishmania killicki Imported from Tunisian Desert. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1864-1865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090148.

East African Trypanosomiasis in a Pregnant Traveler [PDF - 167 KB - 2 pages]
B. Nadjm et al.
EID Nadjm B, Van Tulleken C, Macdonald D, Chiodini P. East African Trypanosomiasis in a Pregnant Traveler. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1866-1867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090384
AMA Nadjm B, Van Tulleken C, Macdonald D, et al. East African Trypanosomiasis in a Pregnant Traveler. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1866-1867. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090384.
APA Nadjm, B., Van Tulleken, C., Macdonald, D., & Chiodini, P. (2009). East African Trypanosomiasis in a Pregnant Traveler. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1866-1867. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090384.

Rickettsia africae Infection in Man after Travel to Ethiopia [PDF - 217 KB - 3 pages]
D. Stephany et al.
EID Stephany D, Buffet P, Rolain J, Raoult D, Consigny PH. Rickettsia africae Infection in Man after Travel to Ethiopia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1867-1869. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090521
AMA Stephany D, Buffet P, Rolain J, et al. Rickettsia africae Infection in Man after Travel to Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1867-1869. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090521.
APA Stephany, D., Buffet, P., Rolain, J., Raoult, D., & Consigny, P. H. (2009). Rickettsia africae Infection in Man after Travel to Ethiopia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1867-1869. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090521.

Rickettsia massiliae in the Canary Islands [PDF - 146 KB - 2 pages]
I. G. Fernández de Mera et al.
EID Fernández de Mera IG, Zivkovic Z, Bolaños M, Carranza C, Pérez-Arellano JL, Gutiérrez C, et al. Rickettsia massiliae in the Canary Islands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1869-1870. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090681
AMA Fernández de Mera IG, Zivkovic Z, Bolaños M, et al. Rickettsia massiliae in the Canary Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1869-1870. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090681.
APA Fernández de Mera, I. G., Zivkovic, Z., Bolaños, M., Carranza, C., Pérez-Arellano, J. L., Gutiérrez, C....de la Fuente, J. (2009). Rickettsia massiliae in the Canary Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1869-1870. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090681.

Dengue Virus Type 3 Infection in Traveler Returning from West Africa [PDF - 140 KB - 2 pages]
L. Ninove et al.
EID Ninove L, Parola P, Baronti C, de Lamballerie X, Gautret P, Doudier B, et al. Dengue Virus Type 3 Infection in Traveler Returning from West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1871-1872. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.081736
AMA Ninove L, Parola P, Baronti C, et al. Dengue Virus Type 3 Infection in Traveler Returning from West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1871-1872. doi:10.3201/eid1511.081736.
APA Ninove, L., Parola, P., Baronti, C., de Lamballerie, X., Gautret, P., Doudier, B....Charrel, R. N. (2009). Dengue Virus Type 3 Infection in Traveler Returning from West Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1871-1872. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.081736.

Low Immunity to Measles and Rubella among Female Guest Workers, Northern Mariana Islands [PDF - 152 KB - 3 pages]
V. Stambos et al.
EID Stambos V, Chaine J, Kelly H, Sablan M, Riddell M. Low Immunity to Measles and Rubella among Female Guest Workers, Northern Mariana Islands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1872-1874. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.081267
AMA Stambos V, Chaine J, Kelly H, et al. Low Immunity to Measles and Rubella among Female Guest Workers, Northern Mariana Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1872-1874. doi:10.3201/eid1511.081267.
APA Stambos, V., Chaine, J., Kelly, H., Sablan, M., & Riddell, M. (2009). Low Immunity to Measles and Rubella among Female Guest Workers, Northern Mariana Islands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1872-1874. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.081267.

Pneumonia Caused by Shigella sonnei in Man Returned from India [PDF - 153 KB - 3 pages]
F. Mancini et al.
EID Mancini F, Carniato A, Ciervo A. Pneumonia Caused by Shigella sonnei in Man Returned from India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1874-1876. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090126
AMA Mancini F, Carniato A, Ciervo A. Pneumonia Caused by Shigella sonnei in Man Returned from India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1874-1876. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090126.
APA Mancini, F., Carniato, A., & Ciervo, A. (2009). Pneumonia Caused by Shigella sonnei in Man Returned from India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1874-1876. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090126.

Imported Human Fascioliasis, United Kingdom [PDF - 153 KB - 2 pages]
M. A. Chand et al.
EID Chand MA, Herman JS, Partridge DG, Hewitt K, Chiodini P. Imported Human Fascioliasis, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1876-1877. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090511
AMA Chand MA, Herman JS, Partridge DG, et al. Imported Human Fascioliasis, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1876-1877. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090511.
APA Chand, M. A., Herman, J. S., Partridge, D. G., Hewitt, K., & Chiodini, P. (2009). Imported Human Fascioliasis, United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1876-1877. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090511.

Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in 2 Tourist Resorts, Dominican Republic [PDF - 164 KB - 2 pages]
A. Doménech-Sánchez et al.
EID Doménech-Sánchez A, Juan C, Rullán AJ, Pérez JL, Berrocal CI. Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in 2 Tourist Resorts, Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1877-1878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090350
AMA Doménech-Sánchez A, Juan C, Rullán AJ, et al. Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in 2 Tourist Resorts, Dominican Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1877-1878. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090350.
APA Doménech-Sánchez, A., Juan, C., Rullán, A. J., Pérez, J. L., & Berrocal, C. I. (2009). Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in 2 Tourist Resorts, Dominican Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1877-1878. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090350.

Hybrid El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, Kuwait [PDF - 261 KB - 2 pages]
R. M. Joshi and M. Albert
EID Joshi RM, Albert M. Hybrid El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, Kuwait. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1879-1880. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090357
AMA Joshi RM, Albert M. Hybrid El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, Kuwait. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1879-1880. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090357.
APA Joshi, R. M., & Albert, M. (2009). Hybrid El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1, Kuwait. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1879-1880. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090357.

Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain from Equatorial Guinea Detected in Spain [PDF - 193 KB - 3 pages]
P. Gavín et al.
EID Gavín P, Iglesias MJ, Jiménez MS, Herrera-León L, Rodríguez-Valín E, Rastogi N, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain from Equatorial Guinea Detected in Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1858-1860. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090449
AMA Gavín P, Iglesias MJ, Jiménez MS, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain from Equatorial Guinea Detected in Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1858-1860. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090449.
APA Gavín, P., Iglesias, M. J., Jiménez, M. S., Herrera-León, L., Rodríguez-Valín, E., Rastogi, N....Samper, S. (2009). Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain from Equatorial Guinea Detected in Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1858-1860. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090449.
Another Dimension

Unexpected [PDF - 123 KB - 1 page]
V. Liyanapathirana
EID Liyanapathirana V. Unexpected. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1883. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090279
AMA Liyanapathirana V. Unexpected. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1883. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090279.
APA Liyanapathirana, V. (2009). Unexpected. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1883. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090279.
Books and Media

Tropical Diseases in Travelers [PDF - 126 KB - 1 page]
L. H. Chen
EID Chen LH. Tropical Diseases in Travelers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1881. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091287
AMA Chen LH. Tropical Diseases in Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1881. doi:10.3201/eid1511.091287.
APA Chen, L. H. (2009). Tropical Diseases in Travelers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1881. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.091287.

Contagion and Chaos: Disease, Ecology, and National Security in the Era of Globalization [PDF - 132 KB - 2 pages]
S. A. Morse
EID Morse SA. Contagion and Chaos: Disease, Ecology, and National Security in the Era of Globalization. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1881-1882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090577
AMA Morse SA. Contagion and Chaos: Disease, Ecology, and National Security in the Era of Globalization. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1881-1882. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090577.
APA Morse, S. A. (2009). Contagion and Chaos: Disease, Ecology, and National Security in the Era of Globalization. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1881-1882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090577.

Outbreak Investigations around the World: Case Studies in Infectious Disease Field Epidemiology [PDF - 128 KB - 1 page]
H. W. Haverkos
EID Haverkos HW. Outbreak Investigations around the World: Case Studies in Infectious Disease Field Epidemiology. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090931
AMA Haverkos HW. Outbreak Investigations around the World: Case Studies in Infectious Disease Field Epidemiology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1882. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090931.
APA Haverkos, H. W. (2009). Outbreak Investigations around the World: Case Studies in Infectious Disease Field Epidemiology. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1882. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090931.
About the Cover

Put Me in the Sky [PDF - 157 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Put Me in the Sky. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1884-1885. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.ac1511
AMA Potter P. Put Me in the Sky. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1884-1885. doi:10.3201/eid1511.ac1511.
APA Potter, P. (2009). Put Me in the Sky. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1884-1885. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.ac1511.
Etymologia

Burkholderia [PDF - 144 KB - 1 page]
EID Burkholderia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.e11511
AMA Burkholderia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1801. doi:10.3201/eid1511.e11511.
APA (2009). Burkholderia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1801. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.e11511.
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Page updated: December 09, 2010
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The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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