Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009
Possible Seasonality of Clostridium difficile in Retail Meat, Canada
||% Samples with C. difficile
||Culture sensitivity, %‡|
|Enrichment||Agar||Ground beef||Veal from milk-fed calves||Both‡|
|Rinsate||TCDMNB||CDMNA||2.7 (4/149)§||0 (0/65)||1.9 (4/214)||31|
|Meat¶||TCDMNB||CDMNA||2.7 (4/149)§||1.5 (1/65)||2.3 (5/214)||39|
|Meat¶||TCDMNB||CDMNA||1.3 (2/149)§||1.5 (1/65)||1.4 (3/214)||23|
|Total of contaminated packages#||6.7 (10/149)||4.6 (3/65)||6.1 (13/214)‡||100|
*Rinsate, sediment; TCDMNB, in-house C. difficile broth (CM0601; Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) supplemented with cysteine hydrochloride, moxalactam, norfloxacin (CDMN, SR0173E; Oxoid), and 0.1% sodium taurocholate (Sigma-Aldrich, Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA) (4); Meat, 2 g; CDMNA, C. difficile agar supplemented with CDMN and 7% laked horse blood (SR0048C; Oxoid); TCCFB, broth supplemented with D-cycloserine and cefoxitin (SR0096E; Oxoid) and 0.1% sodium taurocholate; Blood, 5% defibrinated sheep blood.
†Poor test agreement was found among and between cultures (κ –0.28; p>0.9).
‡Culture sensitivity calculation based on parallel interpretation of all 4 cultures (standard comparator) and 6.1% of overall contamination. Duplicate testing sensitivity ranged from 46.2% (6/13) to 61.5% (8/13).
§Represents 2 packages that simultaneously tested positive in 2 culture replicates.
¶Protocol previously used to test meat; duplicate run (4).
#No statistical differences were found between ground beef and veal in any culture replicate (p>0.1).
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