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Volume 16, Number 10—October 2010

Oral Fluid Testing during 10 Years of Rubella Elimination, England and Wales

Gayatri Manikkavasagan, Antoaneta Bukasa, Kevin E. Brown, Bernard J. Cohen, and Mary E. RamsayComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliation: Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK

Main Article

Table 3

Regional variation in rubella reports by oral (crevicular) fluid testing and confirmed cases from oral fluid and serum, England and Wales, 1999–2008

Region No. reported cases Incidence of reported cases* No. oral fluid tests (% total reports) No. cases confirmed by oral fluid testing No. cases confirmed by serum testing Annual incidence of confirmed cases*
Confirmed by oral fluid testing† Confirmed by serum testing Total
East Midlands 1,336 319 1,065 (80) 3 9 0.09 0.21 0.29
Eastern 1,212 224 1,232 (102)‡ 44 32 0.80 0.59 1.41
London 1,653 226 1,452 (88) 32 67 0.67 0.92 1.35
North East 840 331 574 (68) 0 12 0.00 0.47 0.47
North West 1,662 245 1,505 (91) 12 13 0.25 0.19 0.37
South East 2,363 295 2,350 (99) 18 48 0.34 0.60 0.82
South West 1,109 224 857 (77) 13 40 0.31 0.81 1.07
West Midlands 1,235 234 821 (66) 12 10 0.33 0.19 0.42
Wales 639 220 518 (81) 1 10 0.02 0.34 0.38
Yorkshire and Humberside 1,903 382 1,260 (66) 7 22 0.20 0.44 0.58
Not specified


Total 13,952 266 11,709 (84) 143 263 0.31 0.50 0.77

*Incidence per 1 million population. Annual incidence calculated by using 2001 census population figures.
†Adjusted for proportion of cases tested.
‡Several oral fluid tests were conducted for cases that were not formally reported during university outbreaks in 3 regions in 1999, including the South West, Eastern, and North West regions (17).

Main Article

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