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Volume 16, Number 2—February 2010


Extensive Mammalian Ancestry of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus

Natalia A. Ilyushina1, Jeong-Ki Kim1, Nicholas J. Negovetich1, Young-Ki Choi1, Victoria Lang, Nicolai V. Bovin, Heather L. Forrest, Min-Suk Song, Philippe Noriel Q. Pascua, Chul-Joong Kim, Robert G. WebsterComments to Author , and Richard J. Webby
Author affiliations: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (N.A. Ilyushina, J.-K. Kim, N.J. Negovetich, V. Lang, H.L. Forrest, R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby); D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow, Russia (N.A. Ilyushina); Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea (J.-K. Kim); Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea (Y.-K. Choi, M-S Song, P.N.Q. Pascua); Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (N.V. Bovin); Chungnam National University College of Veterinary Medicine, Daejeon (C.-J. Kim); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis (R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby)

Main Article

Table 2

Replication and transmission of influenza virus A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) in various bird species

Common name (genus and species) Virus titer*
1 dpi
3 dpi
5 dpi
Oropharynx Cloaca Oropharynx Cloaca Oropharynx Cloaca
Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) 1.7 ± 0.5 < < < < < 0
Domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos) 1.7 ± 0.5 < < < < < 0
Wild duck (Anas platyrhynchos) 1.3 ± 0.0 < < < < < 0
Quail (Coturnix japonica) 3.4 ± 0.9‡ < 2.0 ± 1.3‡ 0.8 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.9 33‡

*dpi, days postinoculation; <, titer below limit of detection (<0.75 log10EID50/mL). Virus titers were determined in eggs and are expressed as the log10 50% egg infectious dose (EID50)/mL (8). Data are presented as means ± standard deviation of titers of positive samples (≥0.75 log10 EID50/mL).
†Percentage of contact birds from which virus was isolated.
‡p<0.05, by 1-way analysis of variance.

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1These authors contributed equally to this article.