Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 16, Number 8—August 2010

Multiyear Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus in Waterfowl from Wintering Grounds, Texas Coast, USA

Pamela J. Ferro, Christine M. Budke, Markus J. Peterson, Dayna Cox, Emily Roltsch, Todd Merendino1, Matt Nelson, and Blanca LupianiComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA (P.J. Ferro, C.M. Budke, M.J. Peterson, D. Cox, E. Roltsch, B. Lupiani); Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Bay City, Texas, USA (T. Merendino, M. Nelson); 1Current affiliation: Ducks Unlimited, Texas Gulf Coast, Richmond, Texas, USA.

Main Article

Table A2

Apparent prevalence of avian influenza virus in various waterfowl and wetland-associated game bird species as determined by VI and real-time RT-PCR from cloacal swabs collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl, Texas mid–Gulf Coast, USA, September 2007–January 2008*

No. tested
Real-time RT-PCR,† 
no. (%)
VI,† no. (%)
American wigeon (Anas americana) 51 8 (15.7) 0
Fulvous whistling duck (Dendrocygna bicolor) 14 1 (7.1) 0
Gadwall (Anas strepera) 160 10 (6.3) 1 (0.6) H6N1
Mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) 26 1 (3.9) 0
Mottled duck x Mallard (A. fulvigula x A. platyrhynchos) 2 H6N8
Northern pintail (Anas acuta) 62 13 (21.0) 3 (4.8) H4N8, H10N3, H10N3/7
Northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) 239 38 (15.9) 10 (4.2) H4N2, H5N2 (2),
H5N3, H6N2 (2),
H10N2, H10N7, H11N9 (2)
Ring-necked duck (Aythya collaris) 17 1 (5.9) 0
Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) 36 2 (5.6) 1 (2.8) H2N3
Teal, blue-winged (Anas discors) 1,213 155 (12.8) 73 (6.0) H1N1 (2), H2N8, H3N4, H3N6 (2), H3N8 (9), H4N1, H4N6 (17), H4N8 (6), H5N2 (2), H5N3 (2), H6N1, H7N1, H7N1/4, H7N4, H7N7 (5), H10N?, H10N3 (2), H10N3/7, H10N7 (7), H11N9 (3)
Teal, cinnamon (Anas cyanoptera) 2 H7N3
Teal, green-winged (Anas crecca) 464 38 (8.2) 7 (1.5) H5N2, H7N1/4, H7N3, H10N3, H10N3/7, H10N7, H11N9
Snow goose (Chen eaerulescens)
3 (7.0)

Total¶ 2,424 272 (11.2) 97 (4.0)

*VI, virus isolation; RT-PCR, reverse transcription–PCR.
†Number positive (apparent prevalence). Numbers and apparent prevalence for VI are after RT-PCR result.
‡Isolates typed by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory. Seven isolates were confirmed as avian influenza but were unable to be subtyped. Included are virus isolates that were RT-PCR negative on the original sample.
§Apparent prevalence not calculated due to the small sample size.
¶Other species sampled that were negative for AI by RT-PCR and VI, number sampled: American coot (Fulica americana), 27; Black-bellied whistling duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis), 9; Canvasback (Aythya valisineria), 3; Common snipe (Gallinago gallinago), 2; Greater white-front goose (Anser albifrons), 3; Hooded merganser (Laphodytes cucullatus), 3; Least grebe (Tachybaptus dominicus), 1; Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis), 26; Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), 4; Redhead (Aythya amercana), 3; Ross’s goose (Anser albifrons), 5; Sandhill crane (Grus candensis), 8; and unidentified teal, 1.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Ducks Unlimited, Texas Gulf Coast, Richmond, Texas, USA.

Page created: September 23, 2011
Page updated: September 23, 2011
Page reviewed: September 23, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.