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Issue Cover for Volume 16, Number 8—August 2010

Volume 16, Number 8—August 2010

[PDF - 4.27 MB - 151 pages]

Perspective

Hantavirus Infections in Humans and Animals, China [PDF - 465 KB - 9 pages]
Y. Zhang et al.

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a serious public health problem in the People’s Republic of China. Although 7 sero/genotypes of hantaviruses have been found in rodents, only Hantaan virus (carried by Apodemus agrarius mice) and Seoul virus (carried by Rattus norvegicus rats) reportedly cause disease in humans. During 1950–2007, a total of 1,557,622 cases of HFRS in humans and 46,427 deaths (3%) were reported in China. HFRS has been reported in 29 of 31 provinces in China. After implementation of comprehensive preventive measures, including vaccination, in the past decade in China, incidence of HFRS has dramatically decreased; only 11,248 HFRS cases were reported in 2007. Mortality rates also declined from the highest level of 14.2% in 1969 to ≈1% during 1995–2007. However, the numbers of HFRS cases and deaths in China remain the highest in the world.

EID Zhang Y, Zou Y, Fu ZF, Plyusnin A. Hantavirus Infections in Humans and Animals, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1195-1203. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.090470
AMA Zhang Y, Zou Y, Fu ZF, et al. Hantavirus Infections in Humans and Animals, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1195-1203. doi:10.3201/eid1608.090470.
APA Zhang, Y., Zou, Y., Fu, Z. F., & Plyusnin, A. (2010). Hantavirus Infections in Humans and Animals, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1195-1203. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.090470.
Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Clostridium difficile Bacteremia, Taiwan [PDF - 148 KB - 7 pages]
N. Lee et al.

To determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with Clostridium difficile bacteremia (CDB), we identified 12 patients with CDB in 2 medical centers in Taiwan; all had underlying systemic diseases. Five had gastrointestinal diseases or conditions, including pseudomembranous colitis (2 patients); 4 recalled diarrhea, but only 5 had recent exposure to antimicrobial drugs. Ten available isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Five isolates had C. difficile toxin A or B. Of 5 patients who died, 3 died of CDB. Of 8 patients treated with metronidazole or vancomycin, only 1 died, and all 4 patients treated with other drugs died (12.5% vs. 100%; p = 0.01). C. difficile bacteremia, although uncommon, is thus associated with substaintial illness and death rates.

EID Lee N, Huang Y, Hsueh P, Ko W. Clostridium difficile Bacteremia, Taiwan1. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1204-1210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100064
AMA Lee N, Huang Y, Hsueh P, et al. Clostridium difficile Bacteremia, Taiwan1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1204-1210. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100064.
APA Lee, N., Huang, Y., Hsueh, P., & Ko, W. (2010). Clostridium difficile Bacteremia, Taiwan1. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1204-1210. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100064.
Research

Responses to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia [PDF - 153 KB - 6 pages]
K. Eastwood et al.

In 2007, adults in Australia were interviewed about their willingness to comply with potential health interventions during a hypothetical influenza outbreak. After the first wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Australia, many of the same respondents were interviewed about behavior and protection measures they actually adopted. Of the original 1,155 respondents, follow-up interviews were conducted for 830 (71.9%). Overall, 20.4% of respondents in 2009 had recently experienced influenza-like illness, 77.7% perceived pandemic (H1N1) 2009 to be mild, and 77.8% reported low anxiety. Only 14.5% could correctly answer 4 questions about influenza virus transmission, symptoms, and infection control. Some reported increasing handwashing (46.6%) and covering coughs and sneezes (27.8%) to reduce transmission. Compared with intentions reported in 2007, stated compliance with quarantine or isolation measures in 2009 remained high. However, only respondents who perceived pandemic (H1N1) 2009 as serious or who had attained higher educational levels expressed intention to comply with social distancing measures.

EID Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Butler M, Jones A. Responses to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1211-1216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100132
AMA Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Butler M, et al. Responses to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1211-1216. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100132.
APA Eastwood, K., Durrheim, D. N., Butler, M., & Jones, A. (2010). Responses to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1211-1216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100132.

Bat Coronaviruses and Experimental Infection of Bats, the Philippines [PDF - 276 KB - 7 pages]
S. Watanabe et al.

Fifty-two bats captured during July 2008 in the Philippines were tested by reverse transcription–PCR to detect bat coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The overall prevalence of virus RNA was 55.8%. We found 2 groups of sequences that belonged to group 1 (genus Alphacoronavirus) and group 2 (genus Betacoronavirus) CoVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene showed that groups 1 and 2 CoVs were similar to Bat-CoV/China/A515/2005 (95% nt sequence identity) and Bat-CoV/HKU9–1/China/2007 (83% identity), respectively. To propagate group 2 CoVs obtained from a lesser dog-faced fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis), we administered intestine samples orally to Leschenault rousette bats (Rousettus leschenaulti) maintained in our laboratory. After virus replication in the bats was confirmed, an additional passage of the virus was made in Leschenault rousette bats, and bat pathogenesis was investigated. Fruit bats infected with virus did not show clinical signs of infection.

EID Watanabe S, Masangkay JS, Nagata N, Morikawa S, Mizutani T, Fukushi S, et al. Bat Coronaviruses and Experimental Infection of Bats, the Philippines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1217-1223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100208
AMA Watanabe S, Masangkay JS, Nagata N, et al. Bat Coronaviruses and Experimental Infection of Bats, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1217-1223. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100208.
APA Watanabe, S., Masangkay, J. S., Nagata, N., Morikawa, S., Mizutani, T., Fukushi, S....Akashi, H. (2010). Bat Coronaviruses and Experimental Infection of Bats, the Philippines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1217-1223. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100208.

Multiyear Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus in Waterfowl from Wintering Grounds, Texas Coast, USA [PDF - 190 KB - 7 pages]
P. J. Ferro et al.

We studied the prevalence of influenza A virus in wintering waterfowl from the Central Flyway on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Of 5,363 hunter-harvested migratory and resident waterfowl and wetland-associated game birds sampled during 3 consecutive hunting seasons (September–January 2006–07, 2007–08, and 2008–09), real-time reverse transcription–PCR detected influenza A matrix sequences in 8.5% of samples, H5 in 0.7%, and H7 in 0.6%. Virus isolation yielded 134 influenza A viruses, including N1–N9, H1–H7, H10, and H11 subtypes. Low-pathogenicity H7 subtype was isolated during January, September, and November 2007 and January 2008; low-pathogenicity H5 subtype was isolated during November and December 2007.

EID Ferro PJ, Budke CM, Peterson MJ, Cox D, Roltsch E, Merendino T, et al. Multiyear Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus in Waterfowl from Wintering Grounds, Texas Coast, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1224-1230. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091864
AMA Ferro PJ, Budke CM, Peterson MJ, et al. Multiyear Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus in Waterfowl from Wintering Grounds, Texas Coast, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1224-1230. doi:10.3201/eid1608.091864.
APA Ferro, P. J., Budke, C. M., Peterson, M. J., Cox, D., Roltsch, E., Merendino, T....Lupiani, B. (2010). Multiyear Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus in Waterfowl from Wintering Grounds, Texas Coast, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1224-1230. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091864.

Outbreak of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum Infection in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, France
F. Bittar et al.

An increasing body of evidence indicates that nondiphtheria corynebacteria may be responsible for respiratory tract infections. We report an outbreak of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum infection in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). To identify 18 C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains isolated from 13 French children with CF, we used molecular methods (partial rpoB gene sequencing) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Clinical symptoms were exhibited by 10 children (76.9%), including cough, rhinitis, and lung exacerbations. The results of MALDI-TOF identification matched perfectly with those obtained from molecular identification. Retrospective analysis of sputum specimens by using specific real-time PCR showed that ≈20% of children with CF were colonized with these bacteria, whereas children who did not have CF had negative test results. Our study reemphasizes the conclusion that correctly identifying bacteria at the species level facilitates detection of an outbreak of new or emerging infections in humans.

EID Bittar F, Cassagne C, Bosdure E, Stremler N, Dubus J, Sarles J, et al. Outbreak of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum Infection in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1231-1236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100193
AMA Bittar F, Cassagne C, Bosdure E, et al. Outbreak of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum Infection in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1231-1236. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100193.
APA Bittar, F., Cassagne, C., Bosdure, E., Stremler, N., Dubus, J., Sarles, J....Rolain, J. (2010). Outbreak of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum Infection in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1231-1236. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100193.

White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe [PDF - 234 KB - 6 pages]
G. Wibbelt et al.

White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

EID Wibbelt G, Kurth A, Hellmann D, Weishaar M, Barlow A, Veith M, et al. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1237-1242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100002
AMA Wibbelt G, Kurth A, Hellmann D, et al. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1237-1242. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100002.
APA Wibbelt, G., Kurth, A., Hellmann, D., Weishaar, M., Barlow, A., Veith, M....Blehert, D. S. (2010). White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1237-1242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100002.

West Nile Virus Range Expansion into British Columbia [PDF - 344 KB - 8 pages]
D. Roth et al.

In 2009, an expansion of West Nile virus (WNV) into the Canadian province of British Columbia was detected. Two locally acquired cases of infection in humans and 3 cases of infection in horses were detected by ELISA and plaque-reduction neutralization tests. Ten positive mosquito pools were detected by reverse transcription PCR. Most WNV activity in British Columbia in 2009 occurred in the hot and dry southern Okanagan Valley. Virus establishment and amplification in this region was likely facilitated by above average nightly temperatures and a rapid accumulation of degree-days in late summer. Estimated exposure dates for humans and initial detection of WNV-positive mosquitoes occurred concurrently with a late summer increase in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes (which spread western equine encephalitis) in the southern Okanagan Valley. The conditions present during this range expansion suggest that temperature and Cx. tarsalis mosquito abundance may be limiting factors for WNV transmission in this portion of the Pacific Northwest.

EID Roth D, Henry B, Mak S, Fraser M, Taylor M, Li M, et al. West Nile Virus Range Expansion into British Columbia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1251-1258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100483
AMA Roth D, Henry B, Mak S, et al. West Nile Virus Range Expansion into British Columbia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1251-1258. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100483.
APA Roth, D., Henry, B., Mak, S., Fraser, M., Taylor, M., Li, M....Morshed, M. (2010). West Nile Virus Range Expansion into British Columbia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1251-1258. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100483.

Medscape CME Activity
Correlation of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Viral Load with Disease Severity and Prolonged Viral Shedding in Children [PDF - 295 KB - 8 pages]
C. Li et al.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus causes severe illness, including pneumonia, which leads to hospitalization and even death. To characterize the kinetic changes in viral load and identify factors of influence, we analyzed variables that could potentially influence the viral shedding time in a hospital-based cohort of 1,052 patients. Viral load was inversely correlated with number of days after the onset of fever and was maintained at a high level over the first 3 days. Patients with pneumonia had higher viral loads than those with bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infection. Median viral shedding time after the onset of symptoms was 9 days. Patients <13 years of age had a longer median viral shedding time than those >13 years of age (11 days vs. 7 days). These results suggest that younger children may require a longer isolation period and that patients with pneumonia may require treatment that is more aggressive than standard therapy for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus.

EID Li C, Wang L, Eng H, You H, Chang L, Tang K, et al. Correlation of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Viral Load with Disease Severity and Prolonged Viral Shedding in Children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1265-1272. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091918
AMA Li C, Wang L, Eng H, et al. Correlation of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Viral Load with Disease Severity and Prolonged Viral Shedding in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1265-1272. doi:10.3201/eid1608.091918.
APA Li, C., Wang, L., Eng, H., You, H., Chang, L., Tang, K....Yang, K. D. (2010). Correlation of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Viral Load with Disease Severity and Prolonged Viral Shedding in Children. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1265-1272. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091918.

Scavenging Ducks and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Java, Indonesia [PDF - 290 KB - 7 pages]
J. Henning et al.

In Java, Indonesia, during March 2007–March 2008, 96 farms with scavenging ducks that were not vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were monitored bimonthly. Bird-level (prevalence among individual birds) H5 seroprevalence was 2.6% for ducks and 0.5% for chickens in contact with ducks. At least 1 seropositive bird was detected during 19.5% and 2.0% of duck- and chicken-flock visits, respectively. Duck flocks were 12.4× more likely than chicken flocks to have seropositive birds. During 21.4% of farm visits, ≥1 sampled duck was H5 seropositive when all sampled in-contact chickens were seronegative. Subtype H5 virus was detected during 2.5% of duck-flock visits and 1.5% of chicken-flock visits. When deaths from HPAI infection occurred, H5 virus shedding occurred in apparently healthy birds on 68.8% of farms. Of 180 poultry deaths investigated, 43.9% were attributed to H5 virus. These longitudinal study results indicate that ducks are a source of infection for chickens and, potentially, for humans.

EID Henning J, Wibawa H, Morton J, Usman TB, Junaidi A, Meers J. Scavenging Ducks and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Java, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1244-1250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091540
AMA Henning J, Wibawa H, Morton J, et al. Scavenging Ducks and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Java, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1244-1250. doi:10.3201/eid1608.091540.
APA Henning, J., Wibawa, H., Morton, J., Usman, T. B., Junaidi, A., & Meers, J. (2010). Scavenging Ducks and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Java, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1244-1250. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091540.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance for Severe Illness and Response, New York, New York, USA, April–July 2009 [PDF - 177 KB - 6 pages]
S. Balter et al.

On April 23, 2009, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) was notified of a school outbreak of respiratory illness; 2 days later the infection was identified as pandemic (H1N1) 2009. This was the first major outbreak of the illness in the United States. To guide decisions on the public health response, the DOHMH used active hospital-based surveillance and then enhanced passive reporting to collect data on demographics, risk conditions, and clinical severity. This surveillance identified 996 hospitalized patients with confirmed or probable pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection from April 24 to July 7; fifty percent lived in high-poverty neighborhoods. Nearly half were <18 years of age. Surveillance data were critical in guiding the DOHMH response. The DOHMH experience during this outbreak illustrates the need for the capacity to rapidly expand and modify surveillance to adapt to changing conditions.

EID Balter S, Gupta LS, Lim S, Fu J, Perlman SE. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance for Severe Illness and Response, New York, New York, USA, April–July 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1259-1264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091847
AMA Balter S, Gupta LS, Lim S, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance for Severe Illness and Response, New York, New York, USA, April–July 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1259-1264. doi:10.3201/eid1608.091847.
APA Balter, S., Gupta, L. S., Lim, S., Fu, J., & Perlman, S. E. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance for Severe Illness and Response, New York, New York, USA, April–July 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1259-1264. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091847.
Historical Review

Pearl Kendrick, Grace Eldering, and the Pertussis Vaccine [PDF - 164 KB - 6 pages]
C. G. Shapiro-Shapin

In light of the reemergence of pertussis (whooping cough), the pioneering research of Pearl Kendrick and Grace Eldering is worth revisiting. In the 1930s, working in the Michigan Department of Health laboratory in Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, they began researching a pertussis vaccine. Their research offers an instructive case study of the creative public health research performed in state health department laboratories during the interwar years. State department of health laboratory directors actively promoted research by supporting advanced education; making facilities and funding available for individual projects; and, when possible, procuring new facilities. Using Michigan Department of Health resources and local and federal funding, Kendrick and Eldering developed standardized diagnostic tools; modified and improved extant vaccines; conducted the first successful, large-scale, controlled clinical trial of pertussis vaccine; and participated in international efforts to standardize and disseminate the vaccine. Their model may again offer a promising avenue for groundbreaking research.

EID Shapiro-Shapin CG. Pearl Kendrick, Grace Eldering, and the Pertussis Vaccine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1273-1278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100288
AMA Shapiro-Shapin CG. Pearl Kendrick, Grace Eldering, and the Pertussis Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1273-1278. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100288.
APA Shapiro-Shapin, C. G. (2010). Pearl Kendrick, Grace Eldering, and the Pertussis Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1273-1278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100288.
Dispatches

Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA [PDF - 178 KB - 3 pages]
H. O. Dishman et al.

To determine duck hunters’ risk for highly pathogenic avian influenza, we surveyed duck hunters in Georgia, USA, during 2007–2008, about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We found they engage in several practices that could expose them to the virus. Exposures and awareness were highest for those who had hunted >10 years.

EID Dishman HO, Stallknecht DE, Cole D. Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1279-1281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100032
AMA Dishman HO, Stallknecht DE, Cole D. Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1279-1281. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100032.
APA Dishman, H. O., Stallknecht, D. E., & Cole, D. (2010). Duck Hunters’ Perceptions of Risk for Avian Influenza, Georgia, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1279-1281. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100032.

Amblyomma imitator Ticks as Vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii, Mexico
K. A. Oliveira et al.

Real-time PCR of Amblyomma imitator tick egg masses obtained in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico, identified a Rickettsia species. Sequence analyses of 17-kD common antigen and outer membrane protein A and B gene fragments showed to it to be R. rickettsii, which suggested a potential new vector for this bacterium.

EID Oliveira KA, Pinter A, Medina-Sanchez A, Boppana VD, Wikel SK, Saito TB, et al. Amblyomma imitator Ticks as Vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1282-1284. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100231
AMA Oliveira KA, Pinter A, Medina-Sanchez A, et al. Amblyomma imitator Ticks as Vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1282-1284. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100231.
APA Oliveira, K. A., Pinter, A., Medina-Sanchez, A., Boppana, V. D., Wikel, S. K., Saito, T. B....Bouyer, D. H. (2010). Amblyomma imitator Ticks as Vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1282-1284. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100231.

Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985–2009 [PDF - 274 KB - 4 pages]
X. Wang et al.

To investigate rabies in Massachusetts, we analyzed bat rabies test results before and after introduction of raccoon variant rabies and after release of revised 1999 US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for rabies postexposure prophylaxis. Bat submissions were associated with level of rabies awareness and specific postexposure recommendations.

EID Wang X, DeMaria A, Smole S, Brown CM, Han L. Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1285-1288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100205
AMA Wang X, DeMaria A, Smole S, et al. Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1285-1288. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100205.
APA Wang, X., DeMaria, A., Smole, S., Brown, C. M., & Han, L. (2010). Bat Rabies in Massachusetts, USA, 1985–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1285-1288. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100205.

Lyme Borreliosis, Po River Valley, Italy [PDF - 235 KB - 3 pages]
D. Pistone et al.

We aimed to determine the presence of Ixodes ricinus ticks in heavily populated areas of the Po River Valley after report of a Lyme disease case. Eighteen percent of ticks examined from 3 locations were positive for Lyme disease borreliae. Lyme disease was diagnosed for 3 workers at risk for tick bite.

EID Pistone D, Pajoro M, Fabbi M, Vicari N, Marone P, Genchi C, et al. Lyme Borreliosis, Po River Valley, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1289-1291. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100152
AMA Pistone D, Pajoro M, Fabbi M, et al. Lyme Borreliosis, Po River Valley, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1289-1291. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100152.
APA Pistone, D., Pajoro, M., Fabbi, M., Vicari, N., Marone, P., Genchi, C....Bandi, C. (2010). Lyme Borreliosis, Po River Valley, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1289-1291. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100152.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance in Marginalized Populations, Tijuana, Mexico [PDF - 292 KB - 4 pages]
T. C. Rodwell et al.

To detect early cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection, in 2009 we surveyed 303 persons from marginalized populations of drug users, sex workers, and homeless persons in Tijuana, Mexico. Six confirmed cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were detected, and the use of rapid, mobile influenza testing was demonstrated.

EID Rodwell TC, Robertson AM, Aguirre N, Vera A, Anderson CM, Lozada R, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance in Marginalized Populations, Tijuana, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1292-1295. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100196
AMA Rodwell TC, Robertson AM, Aguirre N, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance in Marginalized Populations, Tijuana, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1292-1295. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100196.
APA Rodwell, T. C., Robertson, A. M., Aguirre, N., Vera, A., Anderson, C. M., Lozada, R....Strathdee, S. A. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance in Marginalized Populations, Tijuana, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1292-1295. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100196.

Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Pathogen, M. mungi [PDF - 279 KB - 4 pages]
K. A. Alexander et al.

Seven outbreaks involving increasing numbers of banded mongoose troops and high death rates have been documented. We identified a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex pathogen, M. mungi sp. nov., as the causative agent among banded mongooses that live near humans in Chobe District, Botswana. Host spectrum and transmission dynamics remain unknown.

EID Alexander KA, Laver PN, Michel AL, Williams M, van Helden PD, Warren RM, et al. Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Pathogen, M. mungi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1296-1299. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100314
AMA Alexander KA, Laver PN, Michel AL, et al. Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Pathogen, M. mungi. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1296-1299. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100314.
APA Alexander, K. A., Laver, P. N., Michel, A. L., Williams, M., van Helden, P. D., Warren, R. M....Gey van Pittius, N. C. (2010). Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Pathogen, M. mungi. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1296-1299. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100314.

Quarantine Methods and Prevention of Secondary Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 [PDF - 193 KB - 3 pages]
C. Chu et al.

During the 2009 influenza (H1N1) pandemic, some countries used quarantine for containment or mitigation. Of 152 quarantined university students we studied, risk for illness was higher for students quarantined in a room with a person with a confirmed case; we found no difference between students quarantined in double or single rooms.

EID Chu C, Li C, Zhang H, Wang Y, Huo D, Wen L, et al. Quarantine Methods and Prevention of Secondary Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1300-1302. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091787
AMA Chu C, Li C, Zhang H, et al. Quarantine Methods and Prevention of Secondary Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1300-1302. doi:10.3201/eid1608.091787.
APA Chu, C., Li, C., Zhang, H., Wang, Y., Huo, D., Wen, L....Song, H. (2010). Quarantine Methods and Prevention of Secondary Outbreak of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1300-1302. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091787.

Picornavirus Salivirus/Klassevirus in Children with Diarrhea, China [PDF - 373 KB - 3 pages]
T. Shan et al.

To learn more about salivirus/klassevirus, we tested feces of children with diarrhea in China during 2008–2009. We isolated the virus from 9/216 diarrhea samples and 0/96 control samples. The nearly full polyprotein of 1 isolate, SH1, showed 95% identity with a salivirus from Nigeria, indicating widespread distribution and association with diarrhea.

EID Shan T, Wang C, Cui L, Yu Y, Delwart E, Zhao W, et al. Picornavirus Salivirus/Klassevirus in Children with Diarrhea, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1303-1305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100087
AMA Shan T, Wang C, Cui L, et al. Picornavirus Salivirus/Klassevirus in Children with Diarrhea, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1303-1305. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100087.
APA Shan, T., Wang, C., Cui, L., Yu, Y., Delwart, E., Zhao, W....Hua, X. G. (2010). Picornavirus Salivirus/Klassevirus in Children with Diarrhea, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1303-1305. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100087.

Human Rickettsia heilongjiangensis Infection, Japan [PDF - 160 KB - 3 pages]
I. Takajo et al.

A case of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis infection in Japan was identified in a 35-year-old man who had rash, fever, and eschars. Serum contained R. heilongjiangensis antibodies, and eschars contained R. heilongjiangensis DNA. R. heilongjiangensis was also isolated from ticks in the suspected geographic area of infection.

EID Takajo I, Kurosawa M, Sakata A, Fujita H, Sakai K, Sekine M, et al. Human Rickettsia heilongjiangensis Infection, Japan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1306-1308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100049
AMA Takajo I, Kurosawa M, Sakata A, et al. Human Rickettsia heilongjiangensis Infection, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1306-1308. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100049.
APA Takajo, I., Kurosawa, M., Sakata, A., Fujita, H., Sakai, K., Sekine, M....Kishimoto, T. (2010). Human Rickettsia heilongjiangensis Infection, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1306-1308. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100049.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccination and Class Suspensions after Outbreaks, Taipei City, Taiwan [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
P. Hsueh et al.

In Taipei City, class suspensions were implemented beginning September 1, 2009 when transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection was suspected. The uptake rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination (starting on November 16, 2009) among students 7–18 years of age was 74.7%. Outbreaks were mitigated after late November 2009.

EID Hsueh P, Lee P, Chiu AW, Yen M. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccination and Class Suspensions after Outbreaks, Taipei City, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1309-1311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100310
AMA Hsueh P, Lee P, Chiu AW, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccination and Class Suspensions after Outbreaks, Taipei City, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1309-1311. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100310.
APA Hsueh, P., Lee, P., Chiu, A. W., & Yen, M. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccination and Class Suspensions after Outbreaks, Taipei City, Taiwan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1309-1311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100310.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Down Syndrome Patients [PDF - 235 KB - 3 pages]
R. Pérez-Padilla et al.

We compared prevalence of hospitalization, endotracheal intubation, and death among case-patients with and without Down syndrome during pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Mexico. Likelihoods of hospitalization, intubation, and death were 16-fold, 8-fold, and 335-fold greater, respectively, for patients with Down syndrome. Vaccination and early antiviral drug treatment are recommended during such epidemics.

EID Pérez-Padilla R, Fernández R, García-Sancho C, Franco-Marina F, Aburto O, López-Gatell H, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Down Syndrome Patients. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1312-1314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091931
AMA Pérez-Padilla R, Fernández R, García-Sancho C, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Down Syndrome Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1312-1314. doi:10.3201/eid1608.091931.
APA Pérez-Padilla, R., Fernández, R., García-Sancho, C., Franco-Marina, F., Aburto, O., López-Gatell, H....Bojórquez, I. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Down Syndrome Patients. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1312-1314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091931.

Household Effects of School Closure during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Pennsylvania, USA [PDF - 158 KB - 3 pages]
T. L. Gift et al.

To determine the effects of school closure, we surveyed 214 households after a 1-week elementary school closure because of pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Students spent 77% of the closure days at home, 69% of students visited at least 1 other location, and 79% of households reported that adults missed no days of work to watch children.

EID Gift TL, Palekar RS, Sodha SV, Kent CK, Fagan RP, Archer WR, et al. Household Effects of School Closure during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1315-1317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091827
AMA Gift TL, Palekar RS, Sodha SV, et al. Household Effects of School Closure during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1315-1317. doi:10.3201/eid1608.091827.
APA Gift, T. L., Palekar, R. S., Sodha, S. V., Kent, C. K., Fagan, R. P., Archer, W. R....Meltzer, M. I. (2010). Household Effects of School Closure during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1315-1317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091827.
Letters

Imported Human Rabies, the Philippines and Finland, 2007 [PDF - 117 KB - 2 pages]
R. Rimhanen-Finne et al.
EID Rimhanen-Finne R, Järvinen A, Kuusi M, Quiambao BP, Malbas FF, Huovilainen A, et al. Imported Human Rabies, the Philippines and Finland, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1318-1319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091380
AMA Rimhanen-Finne R, Järvinen A, Kuusi M, et al. Imported Human Rabies, the Philippines and Finland, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1318-1319. doi:10.3201/eid1608.091380.
APA Rimhanen-Finne, R., Järvinen, A., Kuusi, M., Quiambao, B. P., Malbas, F. F., Huovilainen, A....Ruutu, P. (2010). Imported Human Rabies, the Philippines and Finland, 2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1318-1319. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091380.

Eye-Opening Approach to Norovirus Surveillance [PDF - 200 KB - 3 pages]
A. Hulth et al.
EID Hulth A, Andersson Y, Hedlund K, Andersson M. Eye-Opening Approach to Norovirus Surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1319-1321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100093
AMA Hulth A, Andersson Y, Hedlund K, et al. Eye-Opening Approach to Norovirus Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1319-1321. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100093.
APA Hulth, A., Andersson, Y., Hedlund, K., & Andersson, M. (2010). Eye-Opening Approach to Norovirus Surveillance. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1319-1321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100093.

Possible Recurrent Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection, Israel [PDF - 130 KB - 2 pages]
E. Kopel et al.
EID Kopel E, Mandelboim M, Amitai Z, Grotto I, Hindiyeh M, Kaliner E, et al. Possible Recurrent Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1321-1322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100436
AMA Kopel E, Mandelboim M, Amitai Z, et al. Possible Recurrent Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1321-1322. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100436.
APA Kopel, E., Mandelboim, M., Amitai, Z., Grotto, I., Hindiyeh, M., Kaliner, E....Volovik, I. (2010). Possible Recurrent Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection, Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1321-1322. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100436.

Novel Chlamydia-like Organisms as Cause of Bovine Abortions, UK [PDF - 177 KB - 2 pages]
N. Wheelhouse et al.
EID Wheelhouse N, Katzer F, Wright F, Longbottom D. Novel Chlamydia-like Organisms as Cause of Bovine Abortions, UK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1323-1324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091878
AMA Wheelhouse N, Katzer F, Wright F, et al. Novel Chlamydia-like Organisms as Cause of Bovine Abortions, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1323-1324. doi:10.3201/eid1608.091878.
APA Wheelhouse, N., Katzer, F., Wright, F., & Longbottom, D. (2010). Novel Chlamydia-like Organisms as Cause of Bovine Abortions, UK. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1323-1324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091878.

West Nile Virus Knowledge among Hispanics, San Diego County, California, USA, 2006 [PDF - 125 KB - 3 pages]
J. W. Bethel and S. H. Waterman
EID Bethel JW, Waterman SH. West Nile Virus Knowledge among Hispanics, San Diego County, California, USA, 2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1324-1326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100067
AMA Bethel JW, Waterman SH. West Nile Virus Knowledge among Hispanics, San Diego County, California, USA, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1324-1326. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100067.
APA Bethel, J. W., & Waterman, S. H. (2010). West Nile Virus Knowledge among Hispanics, San Diego County, California, USA, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1324-1326. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100067.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Man, Republic of Georgia, 2009 [PDF - 146 KB - 3 pages]
K. Zakhashvili et al.
EID Zakhashvili K, Tsertsvadze N, Chikviladze T, Jghenti E, Bekaia M, Kuchuloria T, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Man, Republic of Georgia, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1326-1328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100181
AMA Zakhashvili K, Tsertsvadze N, Chikviladze T, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Man, Republic of Georgia, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1326-1328. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100181.
APA Zakhashvili, K., Tsertsvadze, N., Chikviladze, T., Jghenti, E., Bekaia, M., Kuchuloria, T....Nanuashvili, A. (2010). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Man, Republic of Georgia, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1326-1328. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100181.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in Horses [PDF - 121 KB - 2 pages]
P. Kriz et al.
EID Kriz P, Jahn P, Bezdekova B, Blahutkova M, Mrlik V, Slana I, et al. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in Horses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1328-1329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100097
AMA Kriz P, Jahn P, Bezdekova B, et al. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in Horses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1328-1329. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100097.
APA Kriz, P., Jahn, P., Bezdekova, B., Blahutkova, M., Mrlik, V., Slana, I....Pavlik, I. (2010). Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Infection in Horses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1328-1329. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100097.

Lethal Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by an ST398 Staphylococcus aureus Strain [PDF - 109 KB - 1 page]
J. Rasigade et al.
EID Rasigade J, Laurent F, Hubert P, Vandenesch F, Etienne J. Lethal Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by an ST398 Staphylococcus aureus Strain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100317
AMA Rasigade J, Laurent F, Hubert P, et al. Lethal Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by an ST398 Staphylococcus aureus Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1330. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100317.
APA Rasigade, J., Laurent, F., Hubert, P., Vandenesch, F., & Etienne, J. (2010). Lethal Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by an ST398 Staphylococcus aureus Strain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1330. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100317.

Not-So-Novel Michigan Rabbit Calicivirus [PDF - 162 KB - 2 pages]
J. Abrantes and P. J. Esteves
EID Abrantes J, Esteves PJ. Not-So-Novel Michigan Rabbit Calicivirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1331-1332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091803
AMA Abrantes J, Esteves PJ. Not-So-Novel Michigan Rabbit Calicivirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1331-1332. doi:10.3201/eid1608.091803.
APA Abrantes, J., & Esteves, P. J. (2010). Not-So-Novel Michigan Rabbit Calicivirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1331-1332. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.091803.

Leptospira Serovar as Prognostic Factor [PDF - 117 KB - 1 page]
M. Suzuki and K. Ariyoshi
EID Suzuki M, Ariyoshi K. Leptospira Serovar as Prognostic Factor. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100520
AMA Suzuki M, Ariyoshi K. Leptospira Serovar as Prognostic Factor. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1333. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100520.
APA Suzuki, M., & Ariyoshi, K. (2010). Leptospira Serovar as Prognostic Factor. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1333. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100520.
Books and Media

The Dictionary of Virology, 4th Edition [PDF - 170 KB - 1 page]
A. C. Brault
EID Brault AC. The Dictionary of Virology, 4th Edition. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100778
AMA Brault AC. The Dictionary of Virology, 4th Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1334. doi:10.3201/eid1608.100778.
APA Brault, A. C. (2010). The Dictionary of Virology, 4th Edition. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1334. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.100778.
About the Cover

Not from the Stars Do I My Judgment Pluck
P. Potter
EID Potter P. Not from the Stars Do I My Judgment Pluck. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1335-1336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.ac1608
AMA Potter P. Not from the Stars Do I My Judgment Pluck. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1335-1336. doi:10.3201/eid1608.ac1608.
APA Potter, P. (2010). Not from the Stars Do I My Judgment Pluck. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1335-1336. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.ac1608.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Bordetella pertussis [PDF - 109 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Bordetella pertussis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16(8):1278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.et1608
AMA Etymologia: Bordetella pertussis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2010;16(8):1278. doi:10.3201/eid1608.et1608.
APA (2010). Etymologia: Bordetella pertussis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 1278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1608.et1608.
Conference Summaries

One Health Approach to Influenza: Assessment of Critical Issues and Options
T. F. Powdrill et al.
Page created: September 23, 2011
Page updated: September 23, 2011
Page reviewed: September 23, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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