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Volume 16, Number 8—August 2010


Multiyear Surveillance for Avian Influenza Virus in Waterfowl from Wintering Grounds, Texas Coast, USA

Pamela J. Ferro, Christine M. Budke, Markus J. Peterson, Dayna Cox, Emily Roltsch, Todd Merendino1, Matt Nelson, and Blanca LupianiComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA (P.J. Ferro, C.M. Budke, M.J. Peterson, D. Cox, E. Roltsch, B. Lupiani); Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Bay City, Texas, USA (T. Merendino, M. Nelson); 1Current affiliation: Ducks Unlimited, Texas Gulf Coast, Richmond, Texas, USA.

Main Article

Table A3

Apparent prevalence of avian influenza virus in various waterfowl and wetland-associated game bird species as determined by VI and real-time RT-PCR from cloacal swabs collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl, Texas mid–Gulf Coast, USA, September 2008–January 2009*

No. tested
Real-time RT-PCR,† no. (%)
VI,† no. (%)
American wigeon (Anas americana) 16 1 (6.3) 0
Northern pintail (A. acuta) 28 2 (7.1) 1 (3.6) H4N6
Northern shoveler (A. clypeata) 104 5 (4.8) 1 (1.0) H7N2
Teal, blue-winged (A. discors) 176 21 (11.9) 3 (1.7) H4N6, H4N8 (2)
Teal, green-winged (A. crecca)
13 (4.1)

Total§ 768 42 (5.5) 5 (0.7)

*VI, virus isolation; RT-PCR, reverse transcription–PCR.
†Number positive (apparent prevalence).
‡Isolates typed by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory.
§Other species sampled that were negative for AI by RT-PCR and VI, number sampled: Common ground dove (Columbina passerina), 1; Gadwall (Anas strepera), 30; Greater white-front goose (Anser albifrons), 6; Hooded merganser (Laphodytes cucullatus), 4; Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis), 1; Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), 4; Mottled duck (Anas fulvigla), 23; Mottled duck x Mallard hybrid (Anas fulvigula x Anas platyrhynchos), 1; Ring-necked duck (Aythya collaris), 1; Ross’s goose (Anser albifrons), 1; Sandhill crane (Grus candensis), 1; Snow goose (Chen eaerulescens), 56; and Wood duck (Aix sponsa), 1.

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1Current affiliation: Ducks Unlimited, Texas Gulf Coast, Richmond, Texas, USA.