Volume 18, Number 1—January 2012
The 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic in Boyacá, Colombia
|Location||Herald wave in 1918||Excess mortality rate from respiratory illness/10,000 population, main 1918–19 wave (mo of peak pandemic deaths, 1918)||Death-sparing effect among elderly persons||Reference|
|New York, USA||Yes (Mar–Apr)||52 (Oct–Nov)||Yes||(1)|
|Mexico City, Mexico||Yes (May)||47 (Nov)||No||(3)|
|Toluca, Mexico||Yes (May)||162 (Nov)||No||(3)|
|Boyacá, Colombia||No||40 (Nov)||No||This study|
|Lima, Peru||Yes (Sep–Oct)†||29 (Nov)||No†||(4)|
|Iquitos, Peru||No||288 (Nov)||ND||(4)|
|Copenhagen, Denmark||Yes (Jul–Aug)||39 (Nov)||Yes||(6)|
|Paris, France||No||61 (Oct)||ND||(7)|
|Basque Provinces, Spain||Yes (Jun)||121 (Oct)||ND||(19)|
|Madrid, Spain||Yes (Jun)||53 (Oct)||Yes||(7)|
|Singapore||Yes (Jul)||78–180 (Oct)||ND||(9,20)|
*Data from quantitative studies across different locations around the world. Locations are organized by continent (America, Europe, Asia) and latitude. ND, not determined.
†Cannot conclude because of lack of age-specific population data.
- Olson DR, Simonsen L, Edelson PJ, Morse SS. Epidemiological evidence of an early wave of the 1918 influenza pandemic in New York City. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11059–63.
- Mills CE, Robins JM, Lipsitch M. Transmissibility of 1918 pandemic influenza. Nature. 2004;432:904–6.
- Chowell G, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Miller MA, Acuna-Soto R. Mortality patterns associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Mexico: evidence for a spring herald wave and lack of preexisting immunity in older populations. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:567–75.
- Chowell G, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Miller MA, Hurtado J, Soto G, The 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Peru. Vaccine. 2011;29(Suppl 2):B21–6.
- Richard SA, Sugaya N, Simonsen L, Miller MA, Viboud C. A comparative study of the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Japan, USA and UK: mortality impact and implications for pandemic planning. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137:1062–72.
- Andreasen V, Viboud C, Simonsen L. Epidemiologic characterization of the 1918 influenza pandemic summer wave in Copenhagen: implications for pandemic control strategies. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:270–8.
- Erkoreka A. The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918–1920) and victim age. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2010;4:81–9.
- Hsieh YH. Excess deaths and immunoprotection during 1918–1920 influenza pandemic, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1617–9.
- Lee VJ, Chen MI, Chan SP, Wong CS, Cutter J, Goh KT, Influenza pandemics in Singapore, a tropical, globally connected city. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1052–7.
- Morens DM, Taubenberger JK, Harvey HA, Memoli MJ. The 1918 influenza pandemic: lessons for 2009 and the future. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(Suppl):e10–20.
- Miller MA, Viboud C, Balinska M, Simonsen L. The signature features of influenza pandemics–implications for policy. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2595–8.
- Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Cauchemez S, Hanage WP, Van Kerkhove MD, Hollingsworth TD, Pandemic potential of a strain of influenza A (H1N1): early findings. Science. 2009;324:1557–61.
- Chowell G, Bertozzi SM, Colchero MA, Lopez-Gatell H, Alpuche-Aranda C, Hernandez M, Severe respiratory disease concurrent with the circulation of H1N1 influenza. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:674–9.
- Viboud C, Alonso WJ, Simonsen L. Influenza in tropical regions. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e89.
- de Boyacá D. Colombia, Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica. Censo de 1918. Boyacá (Colombia): The Department; 1918.
- Serfling RE. Methods for current statistical analysis of excess pneumonia–influenza deaths. Public Health Rep. 1963;78:494–506.
- Viboud C, Grais RF, Lafont BA, Miller MA, Simonsen L. Multinational impact of the 1968 Hong Kong influenza pandemic: evidence for a smoldering pandemic. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:233–48.
- Serfling RE, Sherman IL, Houseworth WJ. Excess pneumonia–influenza mortality by age and sex in three major influenza A2 epidemics, United States, 1957–58, 1960 and 1963. Am J Epidemiol. 1967;86:433–41.
- Erkoreka A. Spanish influenza in the heart of Europe. A study of a significant sample of the Basque population. Gesnerus. 2008;65:30–41.
- Murray CJ, Lopez AD, Chin B, Feehan D, Hill KH. Estimation of potential global pandemic influenza mortality on the basis of vital registry data from the 1918–20 pandemic: a quantitative analysis. Lancet. 2006;368:2211–8.
- Anderson RM, May RM. Infectious diseases of humans. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press; 1991.
- Wallinga J, Lipsitch M. How generation intervals shape the relationship between growth rates and reproductive numbers. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:599–604.
- Ferguson NM, Cummings DA, Fraser C, Cajka JC, Cooley PC, Burke DS. Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic. Nature. 2006;442:448–52.
- Cauchemez S, Carrat F, Viboud C, Valleron AJ, Boelle PYA. Bayesian MCMC approach to study transmission of influenza: application to household longitudinal data. Stat Med. 2004;23:3469–87.
- Ammon CE. Spanish flu epidemic in 1918 in Geneva, Switzerland. Euro Surveill. 2002;7:190–2.
- Chowell G, Ammon CE, Hengartner NW, Hyman JM. Estimation of the reproductive number of the Spanish flu epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland. Vaccine. 2006;24:6747–50.
- Chowell G, Bettencourt LM, Johnson N, Alonso WJ, Viboud C. The 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in England and Wales: spatial patterns in transmissibility and mortality impact. Proc Biol Sci. 2008;275:501–9.
- Sheng Z-M, Chertow DS, Ambroggio X, McCall S, Przygodzki RM, Cunningham RE, Autopsy series of 68 cases dying before and during the 1918 influenza pandemic peak. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16416–21.
- Hsieh YH, Chan CH. Excess healthcare burden during 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Taiwan: implications for post-pandemic preparedness. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:41.
- Ministerio de Salud de Chile. Situacion de influenza A(H1N1). Reporte 01/26/2010 [cited 2010 Feb 15]. http://www.pandemia.cl/index.php?id=61
- ANZIC Investigators, Webb SA, Pettilä V, Seppelt I, Bellomo R, Bailey M, et al. Critical care services and 2009 H1N1 influenza in Australia and New Zealand. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1925–34.
- Crosby AW. Epidemic and peace, 1918. Westport (CT): Greenwood Press; 1976.
- Vaillant L, La Ruche G, Tarantola A, Barboza P. Epidemiology of fatal cases associated with pandemic H1N1 influenza 2009. Euro Surveill. 2009;14:pii:19309.
- Ospina Díaz JM, Martínez Martín AF, Herrán Falla OF. Impact of the flu pandemic of 1918–1919 on the general mortality profile in Boyacá, Colombia [in Spanish]. Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos. 2009;16:53–81.
- Palese P. Influenza: old and new threats. Nat Med. 2004;10(Suppl):S82–7.
- Vynnycky E, Trindall A, Mangtani P. Estimates of the reproduction numbers of Spanish influenza using morbidity data. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36:881–9.
- White LF, Pagano M. Transmissibility of the influenza virus in the 1918 pandemic. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1498.
- Chowell G, Nishiura H, Bettencourt LM. Comparative estimation of the reproduction number for pandemic influenza from daily case notification data. J R Soc Interface. 2007;4:155–66.
- Chowell G, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Miller M, Alonso WJ. The reproduction number of seasonal influenza epidemics in Brazil, 1996–2006. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:1857–66.
- Russell CA, Jones TC, Barr IG, Cox NJ, Garten RJ, Gregory V, The global circulation of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) viruses. Science. 2008;320:340–6.
Page created: December 16, 2011
Page updated: December 16, 2011
Page reviewed: December 16, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.