Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 18, Number 11—November 2012
Dispatch

Susceptibility of Children to Sapovirus Infections, Nicaragua, 2005–2006

Filemón Bucardo1, Beatrice Carlsson1, Johan Nordgren, Göran Larson, Patricia Blandon, Samuel Vilchez, and Lennart SvenssonComments to Author 
Author affiliations: University of León, León, Nicaragua (F. Bucardo, P. Blandon, S. Vilchez); Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden (F. Bucardo, B. Carlsson, J. Nordgren, L. Svensson); and University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden (G. Larson)

Main Article

Table 2

Distribution of ABO blood groups, Lewis antigens, and FUT2 428 genotypes among SaV- infected children and healthy controls, León, Nicaragua, 2005–2006*

Variable No. (%) SaV infected No. (%) controls† OR (95% CI) p value‡
Blood group

O

16 (73) 87 (66) 1.3 (0.49–3.7) 0.63

A

2 (9) 26 (20) 0.4 (0.09–1.8) 0.37

B

3 (13.5) 13 (10) 1.4 (0.37–5.5) 0.82

AB

1 (4.5) 5 (4) 1.2 (0.13–11) 1.00
Lewis phenotype

Lea-b+

17 (77.5) 93 (71) 1.3 (0.46–3.91) 1.00

Lea+b-

2 (9) 5 (4) 2.5 (0.45–13.7) 0.26

Lea-b-

3 (13.5) 32 (25) 0.48 (0.13−1.7) 0.41
FUT2 SNP (428G→A)

SeSe

13 (59) 69 (53) 1.3 (0.52–3.2) 0.64

Sese428

7 (32) 58 (44) 0.59 (0.22–1.5) 0.35

se428se428

2 (9) 4 (3) 3.2 (0.55–18.00) 0.2
Secretor status

Secretor

20 (91) 123 (94) 0.65 (0.13–3.3) 0.63

Nonsecretor

2 (9) 8 (6) 1.5 (0.3–7.8) 0.63

*SaV, sapovirus; OR, odds ratio; FUT2, fucosyltransferase gene 2; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; SeSe, homozygous wild type at FUT2 428; Sese428, heterozygous carrier of FUT2 428 non-sense mutation; se428se428, homozygous carrier of the non-sense mutation at nt 428 in the FUT2 gene
†From Bucardo et al. (14).
‡Fischer exact test.

Main Article

References
  1. Tan  M, Jiang  X. Norovirus gastroenteritis, carbohydrate receptors, and animal models. PLoS Pathog. 2010;8:e1000983. DOIPubMed
  2. Rydell  GE, Kindberg  E, Larson  G, Svensson  L. Susceptibility to winter vomiting disease: a sweet matter. Rev Med Virol. 2011;21:37082. DOIPubMed
  3. Kindberg  E, Akerlind  B, Johnsen  C, Knudsen  JD, Heltberg  O, Larson  G, Host genetic resistance to symptomatic norovirus (GGII.4) infections in Denmark. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:27202. DOIPubMed
  4. Le Pendu  J, Ruvoen-Clouet  N, Kindberg  E, Svensson  L. Mendelian resistance to human norovirus infections. Semin Immunol. 2006;18:37586. DOIPubMed
  5. Bucardo  F, Nordgren  J, Carlsson  B, Paniagua  M, Lindgren  PE, Espinoza  F, Pediatric norovirus diarrhea in Nicaragua. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:257380. DOIPubMed
  6. Vinjé  J, Deijl  H, van der Heide  R, Lewis  D, Hedlund  KO, Svensson  L, Molecular detection and epidemiology of Sapporo-like viruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:5306.PubMed
  7. Noel  JS, Liu  BL, Humphrey  CD, Rodriguez  EM, Lambden  PR, Clarke  IN, Parkville virus: a novel genetic variant of human calicivirus in the Sapporo virus clade, associated with an outbreak of gastroenteritis in adults. J Med Virol. 1997;52:1738. DOIPubMed
  8. Okada  M, Yamashita  Y, Oseto  M, Shinozaki  K. The detection of human sapoviruses with universal and genogroup-specific primers. Arch Virol. 2006;151:25039. DOIPubMed
  9. Bucardo  F, Nordgren  J, Carlsson  B, Kindberg  E, Paniagua  M, Mollby  R, Asymptomatic norovirus infections in Nicaraguan children and its association with viral properties and histo-blood group antigens. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:9349. DOIPubMed
  10. Nordgren  J, Kindberg  E, Lindgren  PE, Matussek  A, Svensson  L. Norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak with a secretor-independent susceptibility pattern, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:817. DOIPubMed
  11. Thorven  M, Grahn  A, Hedlund  KO, Johansson  H, Wahlfrid  C, Larson  G, A homozygous nonsense mutation (428G→A) in the human secretor (FUT2) gene provides resistance to symptomatic norovirus (GGII) infections. J Virol. 2005;79:153515. DOIPubMed
  12. Farkas  T, Deng  X, Ruiz-Palacios  G, Morrow  A, Jiang  X. Development of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of sapovirus-specific antibodies and its application in a study of seroprevalence in children. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:36749. DOIPubMed
  13. Hansman  GS, Takeda  N, Katayama  K, Tu  ET, McIver  CJ, Rawlinson  WD, Genetic diversity of Sapovirus in children, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1413. DOIPubMed
  14. Bucardo  F, Kindberg  E, Paniagua  M, Grahn  A, Larson  G, Vildevall  M, Genetic susceptibility to symptomatic norovirus infection in Nicaragua. J Med Virol. 2009;81:72835. DOIPubMed
  15. Shirato-Horikoshi  H, Ogawa  S, Wakita  T, Takeda  N, Hansman  GS. Binding activity of norovirus and sapovirus to histo-blood group antigens. Arch Virol. 2007;152:45761. DOIPubMed

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Page created: October 15, 2012
Page updated: October 15, 2012
Page reviewed: October 15, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external