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Volume 18, Number 11—November 2012


Livestock Density as Risk Factor for Livestock-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the Netherlands

Beth J. FeingoldComments to Author , Ellen K. Silbergeld, Frank C. Curriero, Brigite A.G.L. van Cleef, Max E.O.C. Heck, and Jan A.J.W. Kluytmans
Author affiliations: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (B.J. Feingold, E.K. Silbergeld, F.C. Curriero); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (B.A.G.L. van Cleef, M.E.O.C. Heck); and Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Netherlands; and VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (B.A.G.L. van Cleef, J.A.J.W. Kluytmans)

Main Article

Table 2

Risk factors for LA-MRSA in comparison with those for T-MRSA, the Netherlands, 2003–2005*

Variable Univariate models
OR (95% CI) p value
Contact with pigs 11.176 (2.76–45.29) 0.001 97.81
Contact with cows 20.65 (2.39–178.31) 0.006 99.42
Rural 11.20 (3.15–39.76) 0.000 95.21
Probable source of MRSA 0.083 101.02

Foreign vs health care setting

6.67 (0.78–57.06)

Unknown vs health care setting

6.50 (1.64 25.76) 0.008

Other vs health care setting

12.86 (2.75–60.22) 0.001
Livestock density/municipality

Log (pig)

1.45 (1.13–1.86) 0.003 95.58

Log (cow)

2.25 (1.40–3.60) 0.001 96.32

Log (veal calf)

1.30 (1.11–1.52) 0.001 98.70

Log (population)

0.36 (0.20–0.64) 0.001 94.78

*MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; LA-MRSA, livestock-associated MRSA; T-MRSA, typeable MRSA; AIC, Akaike information criteria.

Main Article