Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012

Using Genotyping and Geospatial Scanning to Estimate Recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission, United States

Patrick K. MoonanComments to Author , Smita Ghosh, John E. Oeltmann, J. Steven Kammerer, Lauren S. Cowan, and Thomas R. Navin
Author affiliations: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Figure 2

Frequency of genotype clusters of tuberculosis, by cluster size (mean 5.68, median 3, range: 2–173), United States, 2005–2009. Frequency was determined by using SaTScan version 9.1.0 (26) on the basis of 3 consecutive, overlapping years: scan A, 2005–2007 (n = 970); scan B, 2006–2008 (n = 1,019); scan C, 2007–2009 (n = 1,128). Error bars indicate upper and lower limits of clusters identified between scan periods.

Figure 2. Frequency of genotype clusters of tuberculosis, by cluster size (mean 5.68, median 3, range: 2–173), United States, 2005–2009. Frequency was determined by using SaTScan version 9.1.0 (26) on the basis of 3 consecutive, overlapping years: scan A, 2005–2007 (n = 970); scan B, 2006–2008 (n = 1,019); scan C, 2007–2009 (n = 1,128). Error bars indicate upper and lower limits of clusters identified between scan periods.

Main Article

  1. Buff  AM, Moonan  PK, Desai  MA, McKenna  TL, Harris  DA, Rogers  BJ, South Carolina tuberculosis genotype cluster investigation: a tale of substance abuse and recurrent disease. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010;14:13479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Pevzner  ES, Robison  S, Donovan  J, Allis  D, Spitters  C, Friedman  R, Tuberculosis transmission and use of methamphetamines in Snohomish County, WA, 1991–2006. Am J Public Health. 2010;100:24816. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Burman  WJ, Bliven  EE, Cowan  L, Bozeman  L, Nahid  P, Diem  L, Relapse associated with active disease caused by Beijing strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:10617. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Jasmer  RM, Bozeman  L, Schwartzman  K, Cave  MD, Saukkonen  JJ, Metchock  B, Recurrent tuberculosis in the United States and Canada: relapse or reinfection? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:13606. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Lai  CC, Tan  CK, Lin  SH, Liao  CH, Chou  CH, Huang  YT, Molecular evidence of false–positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Taiwanese hospital with a high incidence of TB. Chest. 2010;137:106570. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cook  VJ, Stark  G, Roscoe  DL, Kwong  A, Elwood  RK. Investigation of suspected laboratory cross–contamination: interpretation of single smear–negative, positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:10425. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Monitoring tuberculosis programs–National Tuberculosis Indicator Project, United States, 2002–2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:2958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes  PF, Cave  MD. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:114956. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cronin  WA, Golub  JE, Lathan  MJ, Mukasa  LN, Hooper  N, Razeq  JH, Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in a low- to moderate-incidence state: are contact investigations enough? Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:12719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark  CM, Driver  CR, Munsiff  SS, Driscoll  JR, Kreiswirth  BN, Zhao  B, Universal genotyping in tuberculosis control program, New York City, 2001–2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:71924. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Serpa  JA, Teeter  LD, Musser  JM, Graviss  EA. Tuberculosis disparity between US–born blacks and whites, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:899904. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ellis  BA, Crawford  JT, Braden  CR, McNabb  SJ, Moore  M, Kammerer  S, Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in a sentinel surveillance population. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1197209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. van Soolingen  D, Borgdorff  MW, de Haas  PE, Sebek  MM, Veen  J, Dessens  M, Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Netherlands: a nationwide study from 1993 through 1997. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:72636. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnes  PF, Yang  Z, Pogoda  JM, Preston-Martin  S, Jones  BE, Otaya  M, Foci of tuberculosis transmission in central Los Angeles. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159:10816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Small  PM, Hopewell  PC, Singh  SP, Paz  A, Parsonnet  J, Ruston  DC, The epidemiology of tuberculosis in San Francisco. A population–based study using conventional and molecular methods. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:17039. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Murray  M, Alland  D. Methodological problems in the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155:56571. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Houben  RM, Glynn  JR. A systematic review and meta-analysis of molecular epidemiological studies of tuberculosis: development of a new tool to aid interpretation. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:892909. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fok  A, Numata  Y, Schulzer  M, FitzGerald  MJ. Risk factors for clustering of tuberculosis cases: a systematic review of population-based molecular epidemiology studies. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:48092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kulldorff  M, Nagarwalla  N. Spatial disease clusters: detection and inference. Stat Med. 1995;14:799810. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ghosh S, Moonan PK, Cowan L, Grant J, Kammerer S, Navin TR. Tuberculosis genotyping information management system: enhancing tuberculosis surveillance in the United States. Infect Genet Evol. 2011 Oct 25; [Epub ahead of print]. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Reported tuberculosis in the United States, 2009. Atlanta: US.Department of Health and Human Services; October 2010 [cited 2012 Jan 12].
  22. Cowan  LS, Diem  L, Monson  T, Wand  P, Temporado  D, Oemig  TV, Evaluation of a two–step approach for large–scale, prospective genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:68895. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Click  ES, Moonan  PK, Winston  CA, Cowan  LS, Oeltmann  JE. Relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis phylogenetic lineage and clinical site of disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:2119. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Oeltmann  JE, Kammerer  JS, Pevzner  ES, Moonan  PK. Tuberculosis and substance abuse in the United States, 1997–2006. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:18997. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kulldorff  M. A spatial scan statistic. Comm Statist Theory Methods. 1997;26:148196. DOIGoogle Scholar
  26. Kulldorff  M; Information Management Services, Inc. SaTScanTM v8.0: Software for the spatial and space-time scan statistics [cited 10 Jan 2012].
  27. United States Census Bureau. Census geographic regions.[cited 2011 Oct 18].
  28. Miller  AC, Sharnprapai  S, Suruki  R, Corkren  E, Nardell  EA, Driscoll  JR, Impact of genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on public health practice in Massachusetts. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:12859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Vanhomwegen  J, Kwara  A, Martin  M, Gillani  FS, Fontanet  A, Mutungi  P, Impact of immigration on the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Rhode Island. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:83444. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Glynn  JR, Crampin  AC, Yates  MD, Traore  H, Mwaungulu  FD, Ngwira  BM, The importance of recent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an area with high HIV prevalence: a long-term molecular epidemiological study in Northern Malawi. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:4807. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lathan  M, Mukasa  LN, Hooper  N, Golub  J, Baruch  N, Mulcahy  D, Cross-jurisdictional transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Maryland and Washington, DC, 1996–2000, linked to the homeless. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:124951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Geng  E, Kreiswirth  B, Driver  C, Li  J, Burzynski  J, DellaLatta  P, Changes in the transmission of tuberculosis in New York City from 1990 to 1999. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:14538. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Nava-Aguilera  E, Andersson  N, Harris  E, Mitchell  S, Hamel  C, Shea  B, Risk factors associated with recent transmission of tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13:1726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Story  A, Murad  S, Roberts  W, Verheyen  M, Hayward  AC; London Tuberculosis Nurses Network. Tuberculosis in London: the importance of homelessness, problem drug use and prison. Thorax. 2007;62:66771. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Weis  S. Contact investigations: how do they need to be designed for the 21st century? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166:10167. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Taylor  Z. Guidelines for the investigation of contacts of persons with infectious tuberculosis. Recommendations from the National Tuberculosis Controllers Association and CDC. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2005;54(RR-15):181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Asghar  RJ, Patlan  DE, Miner  MC, Rhodes  HD, Solages  A, Katz  DJ, Limited utility of name-based tuberculosis contact investigations among persons using illicit drugs: results of an outbreak investigation. J Urban Health. 2009;86:77680. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Perri  BR, Proops  D, Moonan  PK, Munsiff  SS, Kreiswirth  BN, Kurepina  N, Mycobacterium tuberculosis cluster with developing drug resistance, New York, New York, USA, 2003–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:3728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Schürch  AC, Kremer  K, Kiers  A, Daviena  O, Boeree  MJ, Siezen  RJ, The tempo and mode of molecular evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at patient-to-patient scale. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:10814. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Supply  P, Allix  C, Lesjean  S, Cardoso-Oelemann  M, Rusch-Gerdes  S, Willery  E, Proposal for standardization of optimized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:4498510. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar

Main Article

Page created: February 16, 2012
Page updated: February 16, 2012
Page reviewed: February 16, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.