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Issue Cover for Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012

Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012

[PDF - 5.64 MB - 187 pages]

International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases (ICEID)

Synopses

Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease [PDF - 350 KB - 8 pages]
S. E. Saunders et al.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, transmissible prion disease that affects captive and free-ranging deer, elk, and moose. Although the zoonotic potential of CWD is considered low, identification of multiple CWD strains and the potential for agent evolution upon serial passage hinders a definitive conclusion. Surveillance for CWD in free-ranging populations has documented a continual geographic spread of the disease throughout North America. CWD prions are shed from clinically and preclinically affected hosts, and CWD transmission is mediated at least in part by the environment, perhaps by soil. Much remains unknown, including the sites and mechanisms of prion uptake in the naive host. There are no therapeutics or effective eradication measures for CWD-endemic populations. Continued surveillance and research of CWD and its effects on cervid ecosystems is vital for controlling the long-term consequences of this emerging disease.

EID Saunders SE, Bartelt-Hunt SL, Bartz JC. Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):369-376. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110685
AMA Saunders SE, Bartelt-Hunt SL, Bartz JC. Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):369-376. doi:10.3201/eid1803.110685.
APA Saunders, S. E., Bartelt-Hunt, S. L., & Bartz, J. C. (2012). Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 369-376. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110685.
Research

Foodborne and Waterborne Infections in Elderly Community and Long-Term Care Facility Residents, Victoria, Australia [PDF - 333 KB - 8 pages]
M. D. Kirk et al.

We calculated rates of foodborne and waterborne infections reported to the health department in Victoria, Australia, during 2000–2009 for elderly residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and the community. We used negative binomial regression to estimate incidence rate ratios, adjusting for age, sex, and reporting period. We analyzed 8,277 infections in elderly persons. Rates of campylobacteriosis, legionellosis, listeriosis, toxigenic Escherichia coli infections, and shigellosis were higher in community residents, and rates of Salmonella infection were higher in LTCF residents. Each year, 61.7 Campylobacter infections were reported per 100,000 LTCF residents, compared with 97.6 per 100,000 community residents. LTCF residents were at higher risk for S. enterica serotype Typhimurium associated with outbreaks. Rates of foodborne infections (except salmonellosis) were similar to or lower for LTCF residents than for community residents. These findings may indicate that food preparation practices in LTCFs are safer than those used by elderly persons in the community.

EID Kirk MD, Gregory J, Lalor K, Hall GV, Becker N. Foodborne and Waterborne Infections in Elderly Community and Long-Term Care Facility Residents, Victoria, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):377-384. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110311
AMA Kirk MD, Gregory J, Lalor K, et al. Foodborne and Waterborne Infections in Elderly Community and Long-Term Care Facility Residents, Victoria, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):377-384. doi:10.3201/eid1803.110311.
APA Kirk, M. D., Gregory, J., Lalor, K., Hall, G. V., & Becker, N. (2012). Foodborne and Waterborne Infections in Elderly Community and Long-Term Care Facility Residents, Victoria, Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 377-384. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110311.

Medscape CME Activity
Nonpasteurized Dairy Products, Disease Outbreaks, and State Laws—United States, 1993–2006 [PDF - 268 KB - 7 pages]
A. J. Langer et al.

Although pasteurization eliminates pathogens and consumption of nonpasteurized dairy products is uncommon, dairy-associated disease outbreaks continue to occur. To determine the association of outbreaks caused by nonpasteurized dairy products with state laws regarding sale of these products, we reviewed dairy-associated outbreaks during 1993–2006. We found 121 outbreaks for which the product’s pasteurization status was known; among these, 73 (60%) involved nonpasteurized products and resulted in 1,571 cases, 202 hospitalizations, and 2 deaths. A total of 55 (75%) outbreaks occurred in 21 states that permitted sale of nonpasteurized products; incidence of nonpasteurized product–associated outbreaks was higher in these states. Nonpasteurized products caused a disproportionate number (≈150× greater/unit of product consumed) of outbreaks and outbreak-associated illnesses and also disproportionately affected persons <20 years of age. States that restricted sale of nonpasteurized products had fewer outbreaks and illnesses; stronger restrictions and enforcement should be considered.

EID Langer AJ, Ayers T, Grass J, Lynch M, Angulo FJ, Mahon BE. Nonpasteurized Dairy Products, Disease Outbreaks, and State Laws—United States, 1993–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):385-391. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111370
AMA Langer AJ, Ayers T, Grass J, et al. Nonpasteurized Dairy Products, Disease Outbreaks, and State Laws—United States, 1993–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):385-391. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111370.
APA Langer, A. J., Ayers, T., Grass, J., Lynch, M., Angulo, F. J., & Mahon, B. E. (2012). Nonpasteurized Dairy Products, Disease Outbreaks, and State Laws—United States, 1993–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 385-391. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111370.

Medscape CME Activity
Community-associated Clostridium difficile Infections, Monroe County, New York, USA [PDF - 314 KB - 9 pages]
G. Dumyati et al.

We conducted active sentinel surveillance in Monroe County, New York, USA, to compare incidence of community-associated Clostridium difficile infections (CA-CDIs) with that of health care–associated infections (HA-CDIs) and identify exposure and strain type differences between CA and HA cases. Patients positive for C. difficile toxin and with no documented health care exposure in the previous 12 weeks were defined as possible CA case-patients. Patients with onset in a health care setting or recent health care exposure were defined as HA case-patients. Eighteen percent of CDIs were CA; 76% were in persons who reported antimicrobial drug use in the 12 weeks before CDI diagnosis. Strain type distribution was similar between CA and HA cases; North American pulsed-field 1 was the primary strain (31% CA, 42% HA; p = 0.34). CA-CDI is an emergent disease affecting patients recently exposed to antimicrobial drugs. Community strains are similar to those found in health care settings.

EID Dumyati G, Stevens V, Hannett GE, Thompson AD, Long C, MacCannell D, et al. Community-associated Clostridium difficile Infections, Monroe County, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):392-400. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.102023
AMA Dumyati G, Stevens V, Hannett GE, et al. Community-associated Clostridium difficile Infections, Monroe County, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):392-400. doi:10.3201/eid1803.102023.
APA Dumyati, G., Stevens, V., Hannett, G. E., Thompson, A. D., Long, C., MacCannell, D....Limbago, B. (2012). Community-associated Clostridium difficile Infections, Monroe County, New York, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 392-400. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.102023.

Ocozocoautla de Espinosa Virus and Hemorrhagic Fever, Mexico [PDF - 225 KB - 5 pages]
M. Cajimat et al.

Arenavirus RNA was isolated from Mexican deer mice (Peromyscus mexicanus) captured near the site of a 1967 epidemic of hemorrhagic fever in southern Mexico. Analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data indicated that the deer mice were infected with a novel Tacaribe serocomplex virus (proposed name Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus), which is phylogenetically closely related to Tacaribe serocomplex viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans in South America.

EID Cajimat M, Milazzo M, Bradley RD, Fulhorst CF. Ocozocoautla de Espinosa Virus and Hemorrhagic Fever, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):401-405. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111602
AMA Cajimat M, Milazzo M, Bradley RD, et al. Ocozocoautla de Espinosa Virus and Hemorrhagic Fever, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):401-405. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111602.
APA Cajimat, M., Milazzo, M., Bradley, R. D., & Fulhorst, C. F. (2012). Ocozocoautla de Espinosa Virus and Hemorrhagic Fever, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 401-405. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111602.

Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010 [PDF - 296 KB - 9 pages]
T. E. Besser et al.

Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep.

EID Besser TE, Highland MA, Baker K, Cassirer E, Anderson NJ, Ramsey JM, et al. Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):406-414. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111554
AMA Besser TE, Highland MA, Baker K, et al. Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):406-414. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111554.
APA Besser, T. E., Highland, M. A., Baker, K., Cassirer, E., Anderson, N. J., Ramsey, J. M....Jenks, J. A. (2012). Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 406-414. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111554.

Chicken as Reservoir for Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Humans, Canada [PDF - 166 KB - 7 pages]
C. Bergeron et al.

We previously described how retail meat, particularly chicken, might be a reservoir for extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. To rule out retail beef and pork as potential reservoirs, we tested 320 additional E. coli isolates from these meats. Isolates from beef and pork were significantly less likely than those from chicken to be genetically related to isolates from humans with UTIs. We then tested whether the reservoir for ExPEC in humans could be food animals themselves by comparing geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from 475 humans with UTIs and from cecal contents of 349 slaughtered animals. We found genetic similarities between E. coli from animals in abattoirs, principally chickens, and ExPEC causing UTIs in humans. ExPEC transmission from food animals could be responsible for human infections, and chickens are the most probable reservoir.

EID Bergeron C, Prussing C, Boerlin P, Daignault D, Dutil L, Reid-Smith RJ, et al. Chicken as Reservoir for Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Humans, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):415-421. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111099
AMA Bergeron C, Prussing C, Boerlin P, et al. Chicken as Reservoir for Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Humans, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):415-421. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111099.
APA Bergeron, C., Prussing, C., Boerlin, P., Daignault, D., Dutil, L., Reid-Smith, R. J....Manges, A. R. (2012). Chicken as Reservoir for Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Humans, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 415-421. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111099.

A Systematic Approach for Discovering Novel, Clinically Relevant Bacteria [PDF - 310 KB - 9 pages]
R. Schlaberg et al.

Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (16S) is a reference method for bacterial identification. Its expanded use has led to increased recognition of novel bacterial species. In most clinical laboratories, novel species are infrequently encountered, and their pathogenic potential is often difficult to assess. We reviewed partial 16S sequences from >26,000 clinical isolates, analyzed during February 2006–June 2010, and identified 673 that have <99% sequence identity with valid reference sequences and are thus possibly novel species. Of these 673 isolates, 111 may represent novel genera (<95% identity). Isolates from 95 novel taxa were recovered from multiple patients, indicating possible clinical relevance. Most repeatedly encountered novel taxa belonged to the genera Nocardia (14 novel taxa, 42 isolates) and Actinomyces (12 novel taxa, 52 isolates). This systematic approach for recognition of novel species with potential diagnostic or therapeutic relevance provides a basis for epidemiologic surveys and improvement of sequence databases and may lead to identification of new clinical entities.

EID Schlaberg R, Simmon KE, Fisher MA. A Systematic Approach for Discovering Novel, Clinically Relevant Bacteria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):422-430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111481
AMA Schlaberg R, Simmon KE, Fisher MA. A Systematic Approach for Discovering Novel, Clinically Relevant Bacteria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):422-430. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111481.
APA Schlaberg, R., Simmon, K. E., & Fisher, M. A. (2012). A Systematic Approach for Discovering Novel, Clinically Relevant Bacteria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 422-430. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111481.

Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Taenia solium Cysticerci among Refugees Resettled in United States [PDF - 342 KB - 8 pages]
S. E. O’Neal et al.

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by central nervous system infection by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. In developing countries, NCC is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy. Case reports of NCC are increasing among refugees resettled to the United States and other nations, but the underlying prevalence among refugee groups is unknown. We tested stored serum samples from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Migrant Serum Bank for antibodies against T. solium cysts by using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Seroprevalence was high among all 4 populations tested: refugees from Burma (23.2%), Lao People’s Democratic Republic (18.3%), Bhutan (22.8%), and Burundi (25.8%). Clinicians caring for refugee populations should suspect NCC in patients with seizure, chronic headache, or unexplained neurologic manifestations. Improved understanding of the prevalence of epilepsy and other associated diseases among refugees could guide recommendations for their evaluation and treatment before, during, and after resettlement.

EID O’Neal SE, Townes JM, Wilkins PP, Noh JC, Lee D, Rodriguez S, et al. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Taenia solium Cysticerci among Refugees Resettled in United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):431-438. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111367
AMA O’Neal SE, Townes JM, Wilkins PP, et al. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Taenia solium Cysticerci among Refugees Resettled in United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):431-438. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111367.
APA O’Neal, S. E., Townes, J. M., Wilkins, P. P., Noh, J. C., Lee, D., Rodriguez, S....Stauffer, W. M. (2012). Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Taenia solium Cysticerci among Refugees Resettled in United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 431-438. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111367.

Pathogenic Potential to Humans of Bovine Escherichia coli O26, Scotland [PDF - 737 KB - 10 pages]
M. E. Chase-Topping et al.

Escherichia coli O26 and O157 have similar overall prevalences in cattle in Scotland, but in humans, Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O26 infections are fewer and clinically less severe than E. coli O157 infections. To investigate this discrepancy, we genotyped E. coli O26 isolates from cattle and humans in Scotland and continental Europe. The genetic background of some strains from Scotland was closely related to that of strains causing severe infections in Europe. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling found an association between hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and multilocus sequence type 21 strains and confirmed the role of stx2 in severe human disease. Although the prevalences of E. coli O26 and O157 on cattle farms in Scotland are equivalent, prevalence of more virulent strains is low, reducing human infection risk. However, new data on E. coli O26–associated HUS in humans highlight the need for surveillance of non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli and for understanding stx2 phage acquisition.

EID Chase-Topping ME, Rosser T, Allison LJ, Courcier E, Evans J, McKendrick IJ, et al. Pathogenic Potential to Humans of Bovine Escherichia coli O26, Scotland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):439-448. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111236
AMA Chase-Topping ME, Rosser T, Allison LJ, et al. Pathogenic Potential to Humans of Bovine Escherichia coli O26, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):439-448. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111236.
APA Chase-Topping, M. E., Rosser, T., Allison, L. J., Courcier, E., Evans, J., McKendrick, I. J....Gally, D. L. (2012). Pathogenic Potential to Humans of Bovine Escherichia coli O26, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 439-448. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111236.

Lineage-specific Virulence Determinants of Haemophilus influenzae Biogroup aegyptius [PDF - 317 KB - 9 pages]
F. R. Strouts et al.

An emergent clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Hae) is responsible for outbreaks of Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF). First recorded in Brazil in 1984, the so-called BPF clone of Hae caused a fulminant disease that started with conjunctivitis but developed into septicemic shock; mortality rates were as high as 70%. To identify virulence determinants, we conducted a pan-genomic analysis. Sequencing of the genomes of the BPF clone strain F3031 and a noninvasive conjunctivitis strain, F3047, and comparison of these sequences with 5 other complete H. influenzae genomes showed that >77% of the F3031 genome is shared among all H. influenzae strains. Delineation of the Hae accessory genome enabled characterization of 163 predicted protein-coding genes; identified differences in established autotransporter adhesins; and revealed a suite of novel adhesins unique to Hae, including novel trimeric autotransporter adhesins and 4 new fimbrial operons. These novel adhesins might play a critical role in host–pathogen interactions.

EID Strouts FR, Power P, Croucher NJ, Corton N, van Tonder A, Quail MA, et al. Lineage-specific Virulence Determinants of Haemophilus influenzae Biogroup aegyptius. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):449-457. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110728
AMA Strouts FR, Power P, Croucher NJ, et al. Lineage-specific Virulence Determinants of Haemophilus influenzae Biogroup aegyptius. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):449-457. doi:10.3201/eid1803.110728.
APA Strouts, F. R., Power, P., Croucher, N. J., Corton, N., van Tonder, A., Quail, M. A....Bentley, S. D. (2012). Lineage-specific Virulence Determinants of Haemophilus influenzae Biogroup aegyptius. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 449-457. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110728.

Using Genotyping and Geospatial Scanning to Estimate Recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission, United States [PDF - 174 KB - 8 pages]
P. K. Moonan et al.

To determine the proportion of reported tuberculosis (TB) cases due to recent transmission in the United States, we conducted a cross-sectional study to examine culture-positive TB cases with complete genotype results (spoligotyping and 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable-number tandem repeat typing) reported during January 2005–December 2009. Recently transmitted cases were defined as cases with matching results reported within statistically significant geospatial zones (identified by a spatial span statistic within a sliding 3-year window). Approximately 1 in 4 TB cases reported in the United States may be attributed to recent transmission. Groups at greatest risk for recent transmission appear to be men, persons born in the United States, members of a minority race or ethnic group, persons who abuse substances, and the homeless. Understanding transmission dynamics and establishing strategies for rapidly detecting recent transmission among these populations are essential for TB elimination in the United States.

EID Moonan PK, Ghosh S, Oeltmann JE, Kammerer J, Cowan LS, Navin TR. Using Genotyping and Geospatial Scanning to Estimate Recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):458-465. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111107
AMA Moonan PK, Ghosh S, Oeltmann JE, et al. Using Genotyping and Geospatial Scanning to Estimate Recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):458-465. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111107.
APA Moonan, P. K., Ghosh, S., Oeltmann, J. E., Kammerer, J., Cowan, L. S., & Navin, T. R. (2012). Using Genotyping and Geospatial Scanning to Estimate Recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 458-465. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111107.
Dispatches

Poultry Culling and Campylobacteriosis Reduction among Humans, the Netherlands [PDF - 167 KB - 3 pages]
I. Friesema et al.

In the Netherlands in 2003, an outbreak of avian influenza in poultry resulted in extensive culling, especially of layer hens. Concurrently, human campylobacteriosis cases decreased, particularly in the culling area. These observations raise the hypothesis that Campylobacter spp. dissemination from poultry farms or slaughterhouses might contribute to human campylobacteriosis.

EID Friesema I, Havelaar AH, Westra PP, Wagenaar JA, van Pelt W. Poultry Culling and Campylobacteriosis Reduction among Humans, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):466-468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111024
AMA Friesema I, Havelaar AH, Westra PP, et al. Poultry Culling and Campylobacteriosis Reduction among Humans, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):466-468. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111024.
APA Friesema, I., Havelaar, A. H., Westra, P. P., Wagenaar, J. A., & van Pelt, W. (2012). Poultry Culling and Campylobacteriosis Reduction among Humans, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 466-468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111024.

Novel Orthobunyavirus in Cattle, Europe, 2011 [PDF - 296 KB - 4 pages]
B. Hoffmann et al.

In 2011, an unidentified disease in cattle was reported in Germany and the Netherlands. Clinical signs included fever, decreased milk production, and diarrhea. Metagenomic analysis identified a novel orthobunyavirus, which subsequently was isolated from blood of affected animals. Surveillance was initiated to test malformed newborn animals in the affected region.

EID Hoffmann B, Scheuch M, Höper D, Jungblut R, Holsteg M, Schirrmeier H, et al. Novel Orthobunyavirus in Cattle, Europe, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):469-472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111905
AMA Hoffmann B, Scheuch M, Höper D, et al. Novel Orthobunyavirus in Cattle, Europe, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):469-472. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111905.
APA Hoffmann, B., Scheuch, M., Höper, D., Jungblut, R., Holsteg, M., Schirrmeier, H....Beer, M. (2012). Novel Orthobunyavirus in Cattle, Europe, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 469-472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111905.

Escherichia coli O104:H4 Infections and International Travel [PDF - 204 KB - 4 pages]
D. C. Alexander et al.

We analyzed travel-associated clinical isolates of Escherichia coli O104:H4, including 1 from the 2011 German outbreak and 1 from a patient who returned from the Philippines in 2010, by genome sequencing and optical mapping. Despite extensive genomic similarity between these strains, key differences included the distribution of toxin and antimicrobial drug–resistance determinants.

EID Alexander DC, Hao W, Gilmour MW, Zittermann S, Sarabia A, Melano RG, et al. Escherichia coli O104:H4 Infections and International Travel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):473-476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111281
AMA Alexander DC, Hao W, Gilmour MW, et al. Escherichia coli O104:H4 Infections and International Travel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):473-476. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111281.
APA Alexander, D. C., Hao, W., Gilmour, M. W., Zittermann, S., Sarabia, A., Melano, R. G....Allen, V. (2012). Escherichia coli O104:H4 Infections and International Travel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 473-476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111281.

Laboratory Practices and Incidence of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections [PDF - 215 KB - 3 pages]
K. A. Stigi et al.

We surveyed laboratories in Washington State, USA, and found that increased use of Shiga toxin assays correlated with increased reported incidence of non-O157 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections during 2005–2010. Despite increased assay use, only half of processed stool specimens underwent Shiga toxin testing during 2010, suggesting substantial underdetection of non-O157 STEC infections.

EID Stigi KA, MacDonald J, Tellez-Marfin AA, Lofy KH. Laboratory Practices and Incidence of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):477-479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111358
AMA Stigi KA, MacDonald J, Tellez-Marfin AA, et al. Laboratory Practices and Incidence of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):477-479. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111358.
APA Stigi, K. A., MacDonald, J., Tellez-Marfin, A. A., & Lofy, K. H. (2012). Laboratory Practices and Incidence of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 477-479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111358.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Wild Birds and Poultry, South Korea [PDF - 561 KB - 4 pages]
H. Kim et al.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) among wild birds emerged simultaneously with outbreaks in domestic poultry in South Korea during November 2010–May 2011. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2, as did viruses found in Mongolia, the People’s Republic of China, and Russia in 2009 and 2010.

EID Kim H, Lee Y, Park C, Oem J, Lee O, Kang H, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Wild Birds and Poultry, South Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):480-483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111490
AMA Kim H, Lee Y, Park C, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Wild Birds and Poultry, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):480-483. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111490.
APA Kim, H., Lee, Y., Park, C., Oem, J., Lee, O., Kang, H....Bae, Y. (2012). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Wild Birds and Poultry, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 480-483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111490.

Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA [PDF - 196 KB - 4 pages]
N. M. M’ikanatha et al.

In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed.

EID M’ikanatha NM, Dettinger LA, Perry A, Rogers P, Reynolds SM, Nachamkin I. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):484-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111266
AMA M’ikanatha NM, Dettinger LA, Perry A, et al. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):484-487. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111266.
APA M’ikanatha, N. M., Dettinger, L. A., Perry, A., Rogers, P., Reynolds, S. M., & Nachamkin, I. (2012). Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 484-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111266.

Clinical Significance of Escherichia albertii [PDF - 315 KB - 5 pages]
T. Ooka et al.

Discriminating Escherichia albertii from other Enterobacteriaceae is difficult. Systematic analyses showed that E. albertii represents a substantial portion of strains currently identified as eae-positive Escherichia coli and includes Shiga toxin 2f–producing strains. Because E. albertii possesses the eae gene, many strains might have been misidentified as enterohemorrhagic or enteropathogenic E. coli.

EID Ooka T, Seto K, Kawano K, Kobayashi H, Etoh Y, Ichihara S, et al. Clinical Significance of Escherichia albertii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):488-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111401
AMA Ooka T, Seto K, Kawano K, et al. Clinical Significance of Escherichia albertii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):488-492. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111401.
APA Ooka, T., Seto, K., Kawano, K., Kobayashi, H., Etoh, Y., Ichihara, S....Hayashi, T. (2012). Clinical Significance of Escherichia albertii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 488-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111401.

Chikungunya Outbreak in Guangdong Province, China, 2010 [PDF - 129 KB - 3 pages]
D. Wu et al.

A disease outbreak with dengue-like symptoms was reported in Guangdong Province, China, in October 2010. Testing results confirmed that the pathogen causing the outbreak was chikungunya virus. Phylogenic analysis indicated that this virus was a member of the Indian Ocean clade of the East/Center/South African subgroup of chikungunya virus.

EID Wu D, Wu J, Zhang Q, Zhong H, Ke C, Deng X, et al. Chikungunya Outbreak in Guangdong Province, China, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):493-495. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110034
AMA Wu D, Wu J, Zhang Q, et al. Chikungunya Outbreak in Guangdong Province, China, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):493-495. doi:10.3201/eid1803.110034.
APA Wu, D., Wu, J., Zhang, Q., Zhong, H., Ke, C., Deng, X....Yang, X. (2012). Chikungunya Outbreak in Guangdong Province, China, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 493-495. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110034.

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Zhejiang Province, China, 1999–2008 [PDF - 94 KB - 3 pages]
X. Wang et al.

To evaluate levels and trends in drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Zhejiang Province, China, we conducted 1 survey in each of 3 years (1999, 2004, and 2008). We found that <5% of new cases were multidrug-resistant TB. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB has not increased in new or re-treated cases in this province.

EID Wang X, Fu Q, Li Z, Chen S, Liu Z, Nelson H, et al. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Zhejiang Province, China, 1999–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):496-498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110760
AMA Wang X, Fu Q, Li Z, et al. Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Zhejiang Province, China, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):496-498. doi:10.3201/eid1803.110760.
APA Wang, X., Fu, Q., Li, Z., Chen, S., Liu, Z., Nelson, H....Dye, C. (2012). Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Zhejiang Province, China, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 496-498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110760.

Southeast Asian Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in Eastern Asia [PDF - 186 KB - 3 pages]
N. J. Knowles et al.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks recently affected 2 countries (Japan and South Korea) in eastern Asia that were free of FMD without vaccination. Analysis of viral protein 1 nucleotide sequences indicated that FMD serotype A and O viruses that caused these outbreaks originated in mainland Southeast Asia to which these viruses are endemic.

EID Knowles NJ, He J, Shang Y, Wadsworth J, Valdazo-González B, Onosato H, et al. Southeast Asian Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in Eastern Asia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):499-501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110908
AMA Knowles NJ, He J, Shang Y, et al. Southeast Asian Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in Eastern Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):499-501. doi:10.3201/eid1803.110908.
APA Knowles, N. J., He, J., Shang, Y., Wadsworth, J., Valdazo-González, B., Onosato, H....King, D. P. (2012). Southeast Asian Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in Eastern Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 499-501. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110908.

Hepatitis E Virus Infection in HIV-infected Persons [PDF - 218 KB - 5 pages]
N. F. Crum-Cianflone et al.

To determine whether hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a cause of hepatitis among HIV-infected persons, we evaluated 1985–2009 data for US military beneficiaries. Evidence of acute or prior HEV infection was detected for 7 (4%) and 5 (3%) of 194 HIV-infected persons, respectively. HEV might be a cause of acute hepatitis among HIV-infected persons.

EID Crum-Cianflone NF, Curry J, Drobeniuc J, Weintrob A, Landrum M, Ganesan A, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in HIV-infected Persons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):502-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111278
AMA Crum-Cianflone NF, Curry J, Drobeniuc J, et al. Hepatitis E Virus Infection in HIV-infected Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):502-506. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111278.
APA Crum-Cianflone, N. F., Curry, J., Drobeniuc, J., Weintrob, A., Landrum, M., Ganesan, A....Kamili, S. (2012). Hepatitis E Virus Infection in HIV-infected Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 502-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111278.

Adenovirus-associated Deaths in US Military during Postvaccination Period, 1999–2010 [PDF - 138 KB - 3 pages]
R. N. Potter et al.

Adenoviruses are frequent causes of respiratory disease in the US military population. A successful immunization program against adenovirus types 4 and 7 was terminated in 1999. Review of records in the Mortality Surveillance Division, Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, identified 8 deaths attributed to adenovirus infections in service members during 1999–2010.

EID Potter RN, Cantrell JA, Mallak CT, Gaydos JC. Adenovirus-associated Deaths in US Military during Postvaccination Period, 1999–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):507-509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111238
AMA Potter RN, Cantrell JA, Mallak CT, et al. Adenovirus-associated Deaths in US Military during Postvaccination Period, 1999–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):507-509. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111238.
APA Potter, R. N., Cantrell, J. A., Mallak, C. T., & Gaydos, J. C. (2012). Adenovirus-associated Deaths in US Military during Postvaccination Period, 1999–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 507-509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111238.

Epsilonproteobacteria in Humans, New Zealand [PDF - 144 KB - 3 pages]
A. J. Cornelius et al.

Using PCR–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, we examined 49 fecal samples from healthy volunteers and 128 diarrhea specimens to assess the distribution of Epsilonproteobacteria that might be routinely overlooked. Our results suggest that certain taxa that are not routinely examined for could account for a proportion of diarrhea of previously unknown etiology.

EID Cornelius AJ, Chambers S, Aitken J, Brandt SM, Horn B, On S. Epsilonproteobacteria in Humans, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):510-512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110875
AMA Cornelius AJ, Chambers S, Aitken J, et al. Epsilonproteobacteria in Humans, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):510-512. doi:10.3201/eid1803.110875.
APA Cornelius, A. J., Chambers, S., Aitken, J., Brandt, S. M., Horn, B., & On, S. (2012). Epsilonproteobacteria in Humans, New Zealand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 510-512. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110875.
Commentaries

Nonculture Diagnostic Tests for Enteric Diseases [PDF - 72 KB - 2 pages]
T. F. Jones and P. Gerner-Smidt
EID Jones TF, Gerner-Smidt P. Nonculture Diagnostic Tests for Enteric Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):513-514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111914
AMA Jones TF, Gerner-Smidt P. Nonculture Diagnostic Tests for Enteric Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):513-514. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111914.
APA Jones, T. F., & Gerner-Smidt, P. (2012). Nonculture Diagnostic Tests for Enteric Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 513-514. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111914.
Letters

Escherichia coli Producing CMY-2 β-Lactamase in Retail Chicken, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [PDF - 154 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Park et al.
EID Park Y, Adams-Haduch JM, Rivera JI, Curry SR, Harrison LH, Doi Y. Escherichia coli Producing CMY-2 β-Lactamase in Retail Chicken, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):515-516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111434
AMA Park Y, Adams-Haduch JM, Rivera JI, et al. Escherichia coli Producing CMY-2 β-Lactamase in Retail Chicken, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):515-516. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111434.
APA Park, Y., Adams-Haduch, J. M., Rivera, J. I., Curry, S. R., Harrison, L. H., & Doi, Y. (2012). Escherichia coli Producing CMY-2 β-Lactamase in Retail Chicken, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 515-516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111434.

Ilheus Virus Infection in Human, Bolivia [PDF - 165 KB - 3 pages]
E. A. Venegas et al.
EID Venegas EA, Aguilar PV, Cruz C, Guevara C, Kochel TJ, Vargas J, et al. Ilheus Virus Infection in Human, Bolivia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):516-518. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111486
AMA Venegas EA, Aguilar PV, Cruz C, et al. Ilheus Virus Infection in Human, Bolivia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):516-518. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111486.
APA Venegas, E. A., Aguilar, P. V., Cruz, C., Guevara, C., Kochel, T. J., Vargas, J....Halsey, E. S. (2012). Ilheus Virus Infection in Human, Bolivia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 516-518. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111486.

Shared Human/Rabbit Ligands for Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus [PDF - 140 KB - 2 pages]
K. Nyström et al.
EID Nyström K, Le Moullac-Vaidye B, Ruvoën-Clouet N, Le Pendu J. Shared Human/Rabbit Ligands for Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):518-519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111402
AMA Nyström K, Le Moullac-Vaidye B, Ruvoën-Clouet N, et al. Shared Human/Rabbit Ligands for Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):518-519. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111402.
APA Nyström, K., Le Moullac-Vaidye, B., Ruvoën-Clouet, N., & Le Pendu, J. (2012). Shared Human/Rabbit Ligands for Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 518-519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111402.

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Peru [PDF - 139 KB - 2 pages]
C. García et al.
EID García C, Horna G, Linares E, Ramírez R, Tapia E, Velásquez J, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):520-521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.100878
AMA García C, Horna G, Linares E, et al. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):520-521. doi:10.3201/eid1803.100878.
APA García, C., Horna, G., Linares, E., Ramírez, R., Tapia, E., Velásquez, J....Jacobs, J. (2012). Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 520-521. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.100878.

Fatal Measles without Rash in Immunocompetent Adult, France [PDF - 154 KB - 3 pages]
J. Lupo et al.
EID Lupo J, Bernard S, Wintenberger C, Baccard M, Vabret A, Antona D, et al. Fatal Measles without Rash in Immunocompetent Adult, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):521-523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111300
AMA Lupo J, Bernard S, Wintenberger C, et al. Fatal Measles without Rash in Immunocompetent Adult, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):521-523. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111300.
APA Lupo, J., Bernard, S., Wintenberger, C., Baccard, M., Vabret, A., Antona, D....Morand, P. (2012). Fatal Measles without Rash in Immunocompetent Adult, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 521-523. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111300.

Carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp. in Cattle, France [PDF - 172 KB - 3 pages]
L. Poirel et al.
EID Poirel L, Berçot B, Millemann Y, Bonnin RA, Pannaux G, Nordmann P. Carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp. in Cattle, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):523-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111330
AMA Poirel L, Berçot B, Millemann Y, et al. Carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp. in Cattle, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):523-525. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111330.
APA Poirel, L., Berçot, B., Millemann, Y., Bonnin, R. A., Pannaux, G., & Nordmann, P. (2012). Carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp. in Cattle, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 523-525. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111330.

Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico [PDF - 231 KB - 3 pages]
J. Salomón-Grajales et al.
EID Salomón-Grajales J, Lugo-Moguel GV, Tinal-Gordillo VR, de La Cruz-Velázquez J, Beaty BJ, Eisen L, et al. Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):525-527. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111626
AMA Salomón-Grajales J, Lugo-Moguel GV, Tinal-Gordillo VR, et al. Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):525-527. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111626.
APA Salomón-Grajales, J., Lugo-Moguel, G. V., Tinal-Gordillo, V. R., de La Cruz-Velázquez, J., Beaty, B. J., Eisen, L....García-Rejón, J. E. (2012). Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 525-527. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111626.

Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection, China, 2004–2009 [PDF - 153 KB - 2 pages]
H. Jing et al.
EID Jing H, Wang H, Wang Y, Deng Y, Li X, Liu Z, et al. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection, China, 2004–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):527-528. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110175
AMA Jing H, Wang H, Wang Y, et al. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection, China, 2004–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):527-528. doi:10.3201/eid1803.110175.
APA Jing, H., Wang, H., Wang, Y., Deng, Y., Li, X., Liu, Z....Ma, X. (2012). Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection, China, 2004–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 527-528. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110175.

Travelers as Sentinels for Chikungunya Fever, Brazil [PDF - 162 KB - 2 pages]
T. Chaves et al.
EID Chaves T, Pellini A, Mascheretti M, Jahnel M, Ribeiro A, Rodrigues S, et al. Travelers as Sentinels for Chikungunya Fever, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):529-530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110838
AMA Chaves T, Pellini A, Mascheretti M, et al. Travelers as Sentinels for Chikungunya Fever, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):529-530. doi:10.3201/eid1803.110838.
APA Chaves, T., Pellini, A., Mascheretti, M., Jahnel, M., Ribeiro, A., Rodrigues, S....Boulos, M. (2012). Travelers as Sentinels for Chikungunya Fever, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 529-530. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110838.

Enhanced Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in Bats [PDF - 150 KB - 3 pages]
A. Griggs et al.
EID Griggs A, Keel M, Castle K, Wong D. Enhanced Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in Bats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):530-532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111751
AMA Griggs A, Keel M, Castle K, et al. Enhanced Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in Bats. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):530-532. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111751.
APA Griggs, A., Keel, M., Castle, K., & Wong, D. (2012). Enhanced Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in Bats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 530-532. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111751.

NDM-1–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Croatia [PDF - 156 KB - 3 pages]
A. Mazzariol et al.
EID Mazzariol A, Bošnjak Z, Ballarini P, Budimir A, Bedenić B, Kalenić S, et al. NDM-1–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Croatia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):532-534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110389
AMA Mazzariol A, Bošnjak Z, Ballarini P, et al. NDM-1–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Croatia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):532-534. doi:10.3201/eid1803.110389.
APA Mazzariol, A., Bošnjak, Z., Ballarini, P., Budimir, A., Bedenić, B., Kalenić, S....Cornaglia, G. (2012). NDM-1–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Croatia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 532-534. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.110389.

Adherence to Oseltamivir Guidelines during Influenza Pandemic, the Netherlands [PDF - 142 KB - 2 pages]
E. H. Fietjé et al.
EID Fietjé EH, Philbert D, van Geffen E, Winters NA, Bouvy ML. Adherence to Oseltamivir Guidelines during Influenza Pandemic, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):534-535. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111351
AMA Fietjé EH, Philbert D, van Geffen E, et al. Adherence to Oseltamivir Guidelines during Influenza Pandemic, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):534-535. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111351.
APA Fietjé, E. H., Philbert, D., van Geffen, E., Winters, N. A., & Bouvy, M. L. (2012). Adherence to Oseltamivir Guidelines during Influenza Pandemic, the Netherlands. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 534-535. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111351.

Serologic Evidence of Nipah Virus Infection in Bats, Vietnam [PDF - 129 KB - 2 pages]
F. Hasebe et al.
EID Hasebe F, Thuy N, Inoue S, Yu F, Kaku Y, Watanabe S, et al. Serologic Evidence of Nipah Virus Infection in Bats, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):536-537. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111121
AMA Hasebe F, Thuy N, Inoue S, et al. Serologic Evidence of Nipah Virus Infection in Bats, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):536-537. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111121.
APA Hasebe, F., Thuy, N., Inoue, S., Yu, F., Kaku, Y., Watanabe, S....Morita, K. (2012). Serologic Evidence of Nipah Virus Infection in Bats, Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 536-537. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111121.

Discordance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rifampin Susceptibility [PDF - 154 KB - 3 pages]
A. S. Kalokhe et al.
EID Kalokhe AS, Shafiq M, Lee JC, Metchock B, Posey JE, Ray SM, et al. Discordance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rifampin Susceptibility. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):538-539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111357
AMA Kalokhe AS, Shafiq M, Lee JC, et al. Discordance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rifampin Susceptibility. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):538-539. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111357.
APA Kalokhe, A. S., Shafiq, M., Lee, J. C., Metchock, B., Posey, J. E., Ray, S. M....Nguyen, M. T. (2012). Discordance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rifampin Susceptibility. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 538-539. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111357.

High Incidence of Group B Streptococcal Infection in Infants Born to HIV-Infected Mothers [PDF - 152 KB - 2 pages]
T. Goetghebuer et al.
EID Goetghebuer T, Adler C, Epalza C, Levy J. High Incidence of Group B Streptococcal Infection in Infants Born to HIV-Infected Mothers. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):539-540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111630
AMA Goetghebuer T, Adler C, Epalza C, et al. High Incidence of Group B Streptococcal Infection in Infants Born to HIV-Infected Mothers. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):539-540. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111630.
APA Goetghebuer, T., Adler, C., Epalza, C., & Levy, J. (2012). High Incidence of Group B Streptococcal Infection in Infants Born to HIV-Infected Mothers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 539-540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111630.

Etymology of Cholera [PDF - 138 KB - 1 page]
A. A. Kousoulis
EID Kousoulis AA. Etymology of Cholera. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111636
AMA Kousoulis AA. Etymology of Cholera. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):540. doi:10.3201/eid1803.111636.
APA Kousoulis, A. A. (2012). Etymology of Cholera. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 540. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.111636.
About the Cover

The Shortest Follies Are the Best [PDF - 222 KB - 2 pages]
P. Potter
EID Potter P. The Shortest Follies Are the Best. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(3):541-542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.ac1803
AMA Potter P. The Shortest Follies Are the Best. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(3):541-542. doi:10.3201/eid1803.ac1803.
APA Potter, P. (2012). The Shortest Follies Are the Best. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(3), 541-542. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1803.ac1803.
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Page updated: July 10, 2012
Page reviewed: July 10, 2012
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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