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Volume 19, Number 11—November 2013

Human Bocavirus in Patients with Encephalitis, Sri Lanka, 2009–2010

Daisuke Mori, Udaya Ranawaka, Kentaro Yamada, Shaman Rajindrajith, Kazushi Miya, Harsha Kumara Kithsiri Perera, Takashi Matsumoto, Malka Dassanayake, Marcelo Takahiro Mitui, Hisashi Mori, Akira Nishizono, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, and Kamruddin AhmedComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Oita University, Yufu, Japan (D. Mori, K. Yamada, T. Matsumoto, M.T. Mitui, A. Nishizono, K. Ahmed); University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka (U. Ranawaka, S. Rajindrajith, H.K.K. Perera); Colombo North Teaching Hospital, Ragama (M. Dassanayake); University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan (K. Miya, H. Mori); University of Helsinki, Helsinki Finland (M. Söderlund-Venermo)

Main Article


Characteristics of patients with HBoV encephalitis, Sri Lanka, 2009–2010*

Characteristic Sample no.
93018 56684 84770 64502 285
Virus in CSF
Virus detected† HBoV1 HBoV1 HBoV1 HBoV2 HBoV3
HBoV IgM and IgG Neg Neg Neg Neg Neg
Patient demographic
Sex F F M M F
Age 66 y 46 y 5 mo 17 y 8 mo
Place of residence Kaleliya Wattala Mirigama Makola Heiyanthiduwa
Time between illness onset and hospitalization NA 48 h 24 h 48 h 48 h
Duration of hospitalization 7 d 4 d 12 d 4 d 3 d
CSF test result‡
Color Clear Clear Clear Clear Clear
Leukocyte count, cells/μL 1 0 380 0 0
PMNs 0 0 130 0 0
Lymphocytes 1 0 250 0 0
Protein, mg/dL NA 113 170 38 25
Glucose, mg/dL 65 160 48 63 83
Results of Gram stain Neg Neg ND Neg Neg
Bacterial culture ND ND Neg ND ND
Blood tests§
Leukocyte count, cells/μL 10,000 15,200 36,500 15,900 13,200
PMNs, % 63.2 70 62 ND 52
Lymphocytes, % 21.6 21 35 ND 47
Hemoglobin, g/dL 12.2 12 7.7 13.2 13.2
ESR, mm/h 27 68 ND ND ND
CRP, mg/dL ND ND >12 ND <6
Glasgow coma score <15 No Yes, 12 No No No
Outcome Discharged Discharged Discharged Discharged Discharged

*HBoV, human bocavirus; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; Neg, negative; NA, not available; PMN, polymorphonuclear neutrophil: ND, not done; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP, C-reactive protein.
†The following viruses were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, HSV-2, varicella-zoster virus (HSV-3), Epsetin-Barr virus (human herpesvirus [HHV] type 4), cytomegalovirus (HHV-5), (HHV-6), HHV-7, HHV-8, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, rubella virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Nipah virus, measles virus, mumps virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, Chikungunya virus, Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, poliovirus, Coxsackie virus, echovirus, enterovirus, lyssaviruses, and Chandipura virus. Bacteria were tested by PCR amplification of 16Sr RNA, followed by sequencing.
‡Reference values: leukocyte count <5 cells/mm3 and all lymphocytes; PMNs, none; protein, 20–45 mg/dL; glucose, 50–80 mg/dL or >50% of blood glucose level.
§Reference values: leukocyte count, 4,000–11,000 cells/mm3; PMNs, 40–60% of leukocyte count; lymphocytes, 20%–40% of leukocyte count; hemoglobin, men: 14–18 g/dL, women, (12–15 g/dL, children: 11–16 g/dL; ESR, <20 mm in1st hr., CRP, <12 mg/dL.

Main Article

Page created: October 31, 2013
Page updated: October 31, 2013
Page reviewed: October 31, 2013
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