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Volume 20, Number 3—March 2014

Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health

Deborah Middleton1Comments to Author , Jackie Pallister1, Reuben Klein, Yan-Ru Feng, Jessica Haining, Rachel Arkinstall, Leah Frazer, Jin-An Huang, Nigel Edwards, Mark Wareing, Martin Elhay, Zia Hashmi, John Bingham, Manabu Yamada, Dayna Johnson, John White, Adam Foord, Hans G. Heine, Glenn A. Marsh, Christopher C. Broder, and Lin-Fa Wang
Author affiliations: CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (D. Middleton, J. Pallister, R. Klein, J. Haining, R. Arkinstall, L. Frazer, J. Bingham, D. Johnson, J. White, A. Foord, H.G. Heine, G.A. Marsh, L.-F. Wang); Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland, USA (Y.-R. Feng, C.C. Broder); Zoetis Research & Manufacturing Pty Ltd, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (J.-A. Huang, N. Edwards, M. Wareing, M. Elhay, Z. Hashmi); National Institute of Animal Health, Ibaraki, Japan (M. Yamada); Duke–NUS (Duke and the National University of Singapore) Graduate Medical School, Singapore (L.-F. Wang)

Main Article

Table 2

Quantitative reverse transcription PCR detection of Hendra virus N gene in samples collected daily from control horses*

Horse no., sample log10 relative copy number of Hendra virus N RNA, dpc
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Blood −0.2 1.4 1.7
Urine −0.8 1.1
Feces −0.7
Nasal swab −0.3 −0.2 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.7
Oral swab


Blood 0.5 2.6 3.0
Urine 0.3 1.7
Feces −0.05 2.0
Nasal swab 1.2 2.0 1.6 3.5 2.5
Oral swab


Blood 1.5 2.8 2.9 3.4
Urine 1.8 1.7 3.0
Feces 1.5 1.7 2.1
Nasal swab 1.7 2.5 1.2 2.4 3.0 3.8 3.7 2.0
Oral swab

Blood 0.1 1.9 2.5 3.0
Urine 0.07 0.5 2.1
Feces 1.3 2.4 2.1
Nasal swab 0.3 1.6 2.5
Oral swab 0.2 1.2 1.6

*Duplicate samples were obtained and tested by reverse transcription PCR. Cycle threshold values were converted to relative copy numbers by using a standard curve of a sample with a known copy number. dpc, days after challenge. − indicates a negative result; blank space indicates no sample was tested.
†N gene data for horse 1 was obtained from the current study.
‡N gene data for horses 2–4 are unpublished data from a previous study (6).

Main Article

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Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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