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Issue Cover for Volume 20, Number 3—March 2014

Volume 20, Number 3—March 2014

[PDF - 10.61 MB - 183 pages]

Synopses

Medscape CME Activity
Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters [PDF - 539 KB - 7 pages]
K. Benedict and B. J. Park

The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

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EID Benedict K, Park BJ. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):349-355. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131230
AMA Benedict K, Park BJ. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):349-355. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131230.
APA Benedict, K., & Park, B. J. (2014). Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 349-355. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131230.
Research

High-level Relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Strains from Widely Separated Outbreaks [PDF - 460 KB - 8 pages]
H. Tettelin et al.

Three recently sequenced strains isolated from patients during an outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense infections at a cystic fibrosis center in the United States were compared with 6 strains from an outbreak at a cystic fibrosis center in the United Kingdom and worldwide strains. Strains from the 2 cystic fibrosis outbreaks showed high-level relatedness with each other and major-level relatedness with strains that caused soft tissue infections during an epidemic in Brazil. We identified unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis and soft tissue outbreak strains, separate single-nucleotide polymorphisms only in cystic fibrosis outbreak strains, and unique genomic traits for each subset of isolates. Our findings highlight the necessity of identifying M. abscessus to the subspecies level and screening all cystic fibrosis isolates for relatedness to these outbreak strains. We propose 2 diagnostic strategies that use partial sequencing of rpoB and secA1 genes and a multilocus sequence typing protocol.

 Length: 1:26
EID Tettelin H, Davidson RM, Agrawal S, Aitken ML, Shallom S, Hasan NA, et al. High-level Relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Strains from Widely Separated Outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):364-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131106
AMA Tettelin H, Davidson RM, Agrawal S, et al. High-level Relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Strains from Widely Separated Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):364-371. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131106.
APA Tettelin, H., Davidson, R. M., Agrawal, S., Aitken, M. L., Shallom, S., Hasan, N. A....Zelazny, A. M. (2014). High-level Relatedness among Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense Strains from Widely Separated Outbreaks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 364-371. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131106.

Comparison of Imported Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri Infections among Patients in Spain, 2005–2011 [PDF - 480 KB - 8 pages]
G. Rojo-Marcos et al.

Sequencing data from Plasmodium ovale genotypes co-circulating in multiple countries support the hypothesis that P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are 2 separate species. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, comparative study in Spain of 21 patients who had imported P. ovale curtisi infections and 14 who had imported P. ovale wallikeri infections confirmed by PCR and gene sequencing during June 2005–December 2011. The only significant finding was more severe thrombocytopenia among patients with P. ovale wallikeri infection than among those with P. ovale curtisi infection (p = 0.031). However, we also found nonsignificant trends showing that patients with P. ovale wallikeri infection had shorter time from arrival in Spain to onset of symptoms, lower level of albumin, higher median maximum core temperature, and more markers of hemolysis than did those with P. ovale curtisi infection. Larger, prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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EID Rojo-Marcos G, Rubio-Muñoz J, Ramírez-Olivencia G, García-Bujalance S, Elcuaz-Romano R, Díaz-Menéndez M, et al. Comparison of Imported Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri Infections among Patients in Spain, 2005–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):417-424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130745
AMA Rojo-Marcos G, Rubio-Muñoz J, Ramírez-Olivencia G, et al. Comparison of Imported Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri Infections among Patients in Spain, 2005–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):417-424. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130745.
APA Rojo-Marcos, G., Rubio-Muñoz, J., Ramírez-Olivencia, G., García-Bujalance, S., Elcuaz-Romano, R., Díaz-Menéndez, M....Cuadros-González, J. (2014). Comparison of Imported Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri Infections among Patients in Spain, 2005–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 417-424. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130745.

Medscape CME Activity
Use of Drug-Susceptibility Testing for Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Thailand, 2004–2008 [PDF - 522 KB - 9 pages]
E. Lam et al.

In 2004, routine use of culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST) was implemented for persons in 5 Thailand provinces with a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). To determine if DST results were being used to guide treatment, we conducted a retrospective chart review for patients with rifampin-resistant or multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB during 2004–2008. A total of 208 patients were identified. Median time from clinical sample collection to physician review of DST results was 114 days. Only 5.8% of patients with MDR TB were empirically prescribed an appropriate regimen; an additional 31.3% received an appropriate regimen after DST results were reviewed. Most patients with rifampin -resistant or MDR TB had successful treatment outcomes. Patients with HIV co-infection and patients who were unmarried or had received category II treatment before DST results were reviewed had less successful outcomes. Overall, review of available DST results was delayed, and results were rarely used to improve treatment.

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EID Lam E, Nateniyom S, Whitehead S, Anuwatnonthakate A, Monkongdee P, Kanphukiew A, et al. Use of Drug-Susceptibility Testing for Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Thailand, 2004–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):408-416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130951
AMA Lam E, Nateniyom S, Whitehead S, et al. Use of Drug-Susceptibility Testing for Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Thailand, 2004–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):408-416. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130951.
APA Lam, E., Nateniyom, S., Whitehead, S., Anuwatnonthakate, A., Monkongdee, P., Kanphukiew, A....Podewils, L. (2014). Use of Drug-Susceptibility Testing for Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Thailand, 2004–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 408-416. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130951.

Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health [PDF - 416 KB - 8 pages]
D. Middleton et al.

In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease.

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EID Middleton D, Pallister J, Klein R, Feng Y, Haining J, Arkinstall R, et al. Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131159
AMA Middleton D, Pallister J, Klein R, et al. Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):379. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131159.
APA Middleton, D., Pallister, J., Klein, R., Feng, Y., Haining, J., Arkinstall, R....Wang, L. (2014). Hendra Virus Vaccine, a One Health Approach to Protecting Horse, Human, and Environmental Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131159.

Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans [PDF - 405 KB - 6 pages]
J. C. Jones et al.

Avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) recently emerged in China, causing severe human disease. Several subtype H7N9 isolates contain influenza genes previously identified in viruses from finch-like birds. Because wild and domestic songbirds interact with humans and poultry, we investigated the susceptibility and transmissibility of subtype H7N9 in these species. Finches, sparrows, and parakeets supported replication of a human subtype H7N9 isolate, shed high titers through the oropharyngeal route, and showed few disease signs. Virus was shed into water troughs, and several contact animals seroconverted, although they shed little virus. Our study demonstrates that a human isolate can replicate in and be shed by such songbirds and parakeets into their environment. This finding has implications for these birds’ potential as intermediate hosts with the ability to facilitate transmission and dissemination of A(H7N9) virus.

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EID Jones JC, Sonnberg S, Koçer ZA, Shanmuganatham K, Seiler P, Shu Y, et al. Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131271
AMA Jones JC, Sonnberg S, Koçer ZA, et al. Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):385. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131271.
APA Jones, J. C., Sonnberg, S., Koçer, Z. A., Shanmuganatham, K., Seiler, P., Shu, Y....Webster, R. G. (2014). Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 385. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131271.

Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W, Burkina Faso, 2012 [PDF - 576 KB - 6 pages]
J. R. MacNeil et al.

In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to introduce meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT). During 2012, Burkina Faso reported increases in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W, raising questions about whether these cases were a natural increase in disease or resulted from serogroup replacement after PsA-TT introduction. We analyzed national surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of serogroup W and genotyped 61 serogroup W isolates. In 2012, a total of 5,807 meningitis cases were reported through enhanced surveillance, of which 2,353 (41%) were laboratory confirmed. The predominant organism identified was N. meningitidis serogroup W (62%), and all serogroup W isolates characterized belonged to clonal complex 11. Although additional years of data are needed before we can understand the epidemiology of serogroup W after PsA–TT introduction, these data suggest that serogroup W will remain a major cause of sporadic disease and has epidemic potential, underscoring the need to maintain high-quality case-based meningitis surveillance after PsA–TT introduction.

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EID MacNeil JR, Medah I, Koussoubé D, Novak RT, Cohn AC, Diomandé F, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W, Burkina Faso, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):402-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131407
AMA MacNeil JR, Medah I, Koussoubé D, et al. Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W, Burkina Faso, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):402-407. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131407.
APA MacNeil, J. R., Medah, I., Koussoubé, D., Novak, R. T., Cohn, A. C., Diomandé, F....Messonnier, N. E. (2014). Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W, Burkina Faso, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 402-407. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131407.

Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti [PDF - 620 KB - 8 pages]
M. T. Alam et al.

An epidemic of cholera infections was documented in Haiti for the first time in more than 100 years during October 2010. Cases have continued to occur, raising the question of whether the microorganism has established environmental reservoirs in Haiti. We monitored 14 environmental sites near the towns of Gressier and Leogane during April 2012–March 2013. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains were isolated from 3 (1.7%) of 179 water samples; nontoxigenic O1 V. cholerae was isolated from an additional 3 samples. All samples containing V. cholerae O1 also contained non-O1 V. cholerae. V. cholerae O1 was isolated only when water temperatures were ≥31°C. Our data substantiate the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in the aquatic environment in Haiti. These isolations may reflect establishment of long-term environmental reservoirs in Haiti, which may complicate eradication of cholera from this coastal country.

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EID Alam MT, Weppelmann TA, Weber CD, Johnson JA, Rashid MH, Birch CS, et al. Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131293
AMA Alam MT, Weppelmann TA, Weber CD, et al. Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):363. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131293.
APA Alam, M. T., Weppelmann, T. A., Weber, C. D., Johnson, J. A., Rashid, M. H., Birch, C. S....Ali, A. (2014). Monitoring Water Sources for Environmental Reservoirs of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, Haiti. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 363. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131293.

Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012 [PDF - 516 KB - 8 pages]
J. J. Núñez et al.

In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (p<0.001). Rodent nests and tunnels were observed in the foam insulation of the cabin walls. Rodent trapping in the implicated area resulted in high trap success rate (51%), and antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus were detected in 10 (14%) of 73 captured deer mice. All signature tent cabins were closed and subsequently dismantled. Continuous public awareness and rodent control and exclusion are key measures in minimizing the risk for hantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice.

 Length: 1:31
EID Núñez JJ, Fritz CL, Knust B, Buttke D, Enge B, Novak MG, et al. Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):386-393. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131581
AMA Núñez JJ, Fritz CL, Knust B, et al. Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):386-393. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131581.
APA Núñez, J. J., Fritz, C. L., Knust, B., Buttke, D., Enge, B., Novak, M. G....Vugia, D. J. (2014). Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 386-393. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131581.

Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010–2011 [PDF - 445 KB - 9 pages]
B. Schimmer et al.

Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a recognized occupational infection in persons who have regular contact with ruminants. We determined C. burnetii seroprevalence in residents living or working on dairy cattle farms with >50 adult cows and identified risk factors for seropositivity. Serum samples from farm residents, including employees, were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM; seroprevalence was 72.1% overall and 87.2%, 54.5%, and 44.2% among farmers, spouses, and children, respectively. Risk factors included farm location in southern region, larger herd size, farm employment, birds in stable, contact with pigs, and indirect contact with rats or mice. Protective factors included automatic milking of cows and fully compliant use of gloves during and around calving. We recommend strengthening general biosecurity measures, such as consistent use of personal protective equipment (e.g., boots, clothing, gloves) by farm staff and avoidance of birds and vermin in stables.

 Length: 1:34
EID Schimmer B, Schotten N, van Engelen E, Hautvast J, Schneeberger P, van Duijnhoven Y. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131111
AMA Schimmer B, Schotten N, van Engelen E, et al. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):433. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131111.
APA Schimmer, B., Schotten, N., van Engelen, E., Hautvast, J., Schneeberger, P., & van Duijnhoven, Y. (2014). Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk for Humans on Dairy Cattle Farms, the Netherlands, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 433. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131111.

Minimal Diversity of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, South Africa [PDF - 455 KB - 8 pages]
N. R. Gandhi et al.

Multidrug- (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) are commonly associated with Beijing strains. However, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, which has among the highest incidence and mortality for MDR and XDR TB, data suggest that non-Beijing strains are driving the epidemic. We conducted a retrospective study to characterize the strain prevalence among drug-susceptible, MDR, and XDR TB cases and determine associations between strain type and survival. Among 297 isolates from 2005–2006, 49 spoligotype patterns were found. Predominant strains were Beijing (ST1) among drug-susceptible isolates (27%), S/Quebec (ST34) in MDR TB (34%) and LAM4/KZN (ST60) in XDR TB (89%). More than 90% of patients were HIV co-infected. MDR TB and XDR TB were independently associated with mortality, but TB strain type was not. We conclude that, although Beijing strain was common among drug-susceptible TB, other strains predominated among MDR TB and XDR TB cases. Drug-resistance was a stronger predictor of survival than strain type.

 Length: 1:50
EID Gandhi NR, Brust J, Moodley P, Weissman D, Heo M, Ning Y, et al. Minimal Diversity of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):394-401. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131083
AMA Gandhi NR, Brust J, Moodley P, et al. Minimal Diversity of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):394-401. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131083.
APA Gandhi, N. R., Brust, J., Moodley, P., Weissman, D., Heo, M., Ning, Y....Shah, N. (2014). Minimal Diversity of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 394-401. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131083.
Historical Review

Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918 [PDF - 606 KB - 6 pages]
J. N. Burns et al.

Epidemic typhus is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted by body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). This disease occurs where conditions are crowded and unsanitary. This disease accompanied war, famine, and poverty for centuries. Historical and proxy climate data indicate that drought was a major factor in the development of typhus epidemics in Mexico during 1655–1918. Evidence was found for 22 large typhus epidemics in central Mexico, and tree-ring chronologies were used to reconstruct moisture levels over central Mexico for the past 500 years. Below-average tree growth, reconstructed drought, and low crop yields occurred during 19 of these 22 typhus epidemics. Historical documents describe how drought created large numbers of environmental refugees that fled the famine-stricken countryside for food relief in towns. These refugees often ended up in improvised shelters in which crowding encouraged conditions necessary for spread of typhus.

EID Burns JN, Acuna-Soto R, Stahle DW. Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):442-447. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131366
AMA Burns JN, Acuna-Soto R, Stahle DW. Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):442-447. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131366.
APA Burns, J. N., Acuna-Soto, R., & Stahle, D. W. (2014). Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 442-447. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131366.
Policy Review

Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Under-Resourced Countries [PDF - 469 KB - 8 pages]
G. Vernet et al.

Antimicrobial drug resistance is usually not monitored in under-resourced countries because they lack surveillance networks, laboratory capacity, and appropriate diagnostics. This accelerating problem accounts for substantial number of excess deaths, especially among infants. Infections particularly affected by antimicrobial drug resistance include tuberculosis, malaria, severe acute respiratory infections, and sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, mapping antimicrobial drug resistance is feasible in under-resourced countries, and lessons can be learned from previous successful efforts. Specimen shipping conditions, data standardization, absence of contamination, and adequate diagnostics must be ensured. As a first step toward solving this problem, we propose that a road map be created at the international level to strengthen antimicrobial resistance surveillance in under-resourced countries. This effort should include a research agenda; a map of existing networks and recommendations to unite them; and a communication plan for national, regional, and international organizations and funding agencies.

 Length: 1:26
EID Vernet G, Mary C, Altmann DM, Doumbo O, Morpeth S, Bhutta ZA, et al. Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Under-Resourced Countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):434-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121157
AMA Vernet G, Mary C, Altmann DM, et al. Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Under-Resourced Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):434-441. doi:10.3201/eid2003.121157.
APA Vernet, G., Mary, C., Altmann, D. M., Doumbo, O., Morpeth, S., Bhutta, Z. A....Klugman, K. P. (2014). Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Under-Resourced Countries. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 434-441. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121157.
Dispatches

Role of Waddlia chondrophila Placental Infection in Miscarriage [PDF - 522 KB - 5 pages]
D. Baud et al.

Waddlia chondrophila is an intracellular bacterium suspected to cause human and bovine abortion. We confirmed an association between antibodies against W. chondrophila and human miscarriage and identified this organism in placenta or genital tract of women who had had miscarriages. These results suggest a possible role of W. chondrophila infection in miscarriage.

EID Baud D, Goy G, Osterheld M, Croxatto A, Borel N, Vial Y, et al. Role of Waddlia chondrophila Placental Infection in Miscarriage. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):460-464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131019
AMA Baud D, Goy G, Osterheld M, et al. Role of Waddlia chondrophila Placental Infection in Miscarriage. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):460-464. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131019.
APA Baud, D., Goy, G., Osterheld, M., Croxatto, A., Borel, N., Vial, Y....Greub, G. (2014). Role of Waddlia chondrophila Placental Infection in Miscarriage. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 460-464. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131019.

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China [PDF - 886 KB - 4 pages]
D. Li et al.

We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas.

EID Li D, Zhu L, Cui H, Ling S, Fan S, Yu Z, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):480-483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131531
AMA Li D, Zhu L, Cui H, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):480-483. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131531.
APA Li, D., Zhu, L., Cui, H., Ling, S., Fan, S., Yu, Z....Wang, C. (2014). Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 480-483. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131531.

Infective Endocarditis in Northeastern Thailand [PDF - 366 KB - 4 pages]
G. Watt et al.

Despite rigorous diagnostic testing, the cause of infective endocarditis was identified for just 60 (45.5%) of 132 patients admitted to hospitals in Khon Kaen, Thailand, during January 2010–July 2012. Most pathogens identified were Viridans streptococci and zoonotic bacteria species, as found in other resource-limited countries where underlying rheumatic heart disease is common.

EID Watt G, Pachirat O, Baggett HC, Maloney SA, Lulitanond V, Raoult D, et al. Infective Endocarditis in Northeastern Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):473-476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131059
AMA Watt G, Pachirat O, Baggett HC, et al. Infective Endocarditis in Northeastern Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):473-476. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131059.
APA Watt, G., Pachirat, O., Baggett, H. C., Maloney, S. A., Lulitanond, V., Raoult, D....Fournier, P. (2014). Infective Endocarditis in Northeastern Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 473-476. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131059.

Nontoxigenic tox-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection among Game Animals, Germany [PDF - 469 KB - 5 pages]
T. Eisenberg et al.

Corynebacterium ulcerans may cause diphtheria in humans and caseous lymphadenitis in animals. We isolated nontoxigenic tox-bearing C. ulcerans from 13 game animals in Germany. Our results indicate a role for game animals as reservoirs for zoonotic C. ulcerans.

EID Eisenberg T, Kutzer P, Peters M, Sing A, Contzen M, Rau J. Nontoxigenic tox-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection among Game Animals, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):448-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130423
AMA Eisenberg T, Kutzer P, Peters M, et al. Nontoxigenic tox-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection among Game Animals, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):448-452. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130423.
APA Eisenberg, T., Kutzer, P., Peters, M., Sing, A., Contzen, M., & Rau, J. (2014). Nontoxigenic tox-bearing Corynebacterium ulcerans Infection among Game Animals, Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 448-452. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130423.

Postmortem Diagnosis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease [PDF - 361 KB - 3 pages]
A. D. Ridpath et al.

We diagnosed invasive meningococcal disease by using immunohistochemical staining of embalmed tissue and PCR of vitreous humor from 2 men in New York City. Because vitreous humor is less subject than other body fluids to putrefaction, it is a good material for postmortem analysis.

EID Ridpath AD, Halse TA, Musser KA, Wroblewski D, Paddock CD, Shieh W, et al. Postmortem Diagnosis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):453-455. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131245
AMA Ridpath AD, Halse TA, Musser KA, et al. Postmortem Diagnosis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):453-455. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131245.
APA Ridpath, A. D., Halse, T. A., Musser, K. A., Wroblewski, D., Paddock, C. D., Shieh, W....Weiss, D. (2014). Postmortem Diagnosis of Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 453-455. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131245.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among Health Care Workers, Turkey [PDF - 309 KB - 3 pages]
A. Celikbas et al.

We investigated 9 cases of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (1 fatal, 2 asymptomatic) among health care workers in Turkey. Needlestick injuries were reported for 4 workers. Eight received ribavirin. In addition to standard precautions, airborne infection isolation precautions are essential during aerosol-generating procedures. For postexposure prophylaxis and therapy, ribavirin should be given.

EID Celikbas A, Dokuzoğuz B, Baykam N, Gok S, Eroğlu M, Midilli K, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among Health Care Workers, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):477-479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131353
AMA Celikbas A, Dokuzoğuz B, Baykam N, et al. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among Health Care Workers, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):477-479. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131353.
APA Celikbas, A., Dokuzoğuz, B., Baykam, N., Gok, S., Eroğlu, M., Midilli, K....Ergonul, O. (2014). Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever among Health Care Workers, Turkey. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 477-479. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131353.

Urban Epidemic of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection, Senegal, 2009 [PDF - 538 KB - 4 pages]
O. Faye et al.

An urban epidemic of dengue in Senegal during 2009 affected 196 persons and included 5 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 1 fatal case of dengue shock syndrome. Dengue virus serotype 3 was identified from all patients, and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were identified as the primary vector of the virus.

EID Faye O, Ba Y, Faye O, Talla C, Diallo D, Chen R, et al. Urban Epidemic of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection, Senegal, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):456-459. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121885
AMA Faye O, Ba Y, Faye O, et al. Urban Epidemic of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection, Senegal, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):456-459. doi:10.3201/eid2003.121885.
APA Faye, O., Ba, Y., Faye, O., Talla, C., Diallo, D., Chen, R....Sall, A. (2014). Urban Epidemic of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection, Senegal, 2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 456-459. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121885.

Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil [PDF - 507 KB - 4 pages]
F. P. Dornas et al.

To investigate circulation of mimiviruses in the Amazon Region of Brazil, we surveyed 513 serum samples from domestic and wild mammals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 15 sample pools, and mimivirus DNA was detected in 9 pools of serum from capuchin monkeys and in 16 pools of serum from cattle.

EID Dornas FP, Rodrigues FP, Boratto P, Silva L, Ferreira P, Bonjardim CA, et al. Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):469-472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131050
AMA Dornas FP, Rodrigues FP, Boratto P, et al. Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):469-472. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131050.
APA Dornas, F. P., Rodrigues, F. P., Boratto, P., Silva, L., Ferreira, P., Bonjardim, C. A....Abrahão, J. S. (2014). Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 469-472. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131050.

IgG Against Dengue Virus in Healthy Blood Donors, Zanzibar, Tanzania [PDF - 422 KB - 4 pages]
F. Vairo et al.

We conducted a seroprevalence survey among 500 healthy adult donors at Zanzibar National Blood Transfusion Services. Dengue virus IgG seroprevalence was 50.6% and independently associated with age and urban residence. These data will aid in building a surveillance, preparedness, and response plan for dengue virus infections in the Zanzibar Archipelago.

EID Vairo F, Nicastri E, Yussuf S, Cannas A, Meschi S, Mahmoud M, et al. IgG Against Dengue Virus in Healthy Blood Donors, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):465-468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130150
AMA Vairo F, Nicastri E, Yussuf S, et al. IgG Against Dengue Virus in Healthy Blood Donors, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):465-468. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130150.
APA Vairo, F., Nicastri, E., Yussuf, S., Cannas, A., Meschi, S., Mahmoud, M....Ippolito, G. (2014). IgG Against Dengue Virus in Healthy Blood Donors, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 465-468. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130150.
Letters

Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Urban Hedgehogs [PDF - 349 KB - 3 pages]
G. Földvári et al.
EID Földvári G, Jahfari S, Rigó K, Jablonszky M, Szekeres S, Majoros G, et al. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Urban Hedgehogs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):496-498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130935
AMA Földvári G, Jahfari S, Rigó K, et al. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Urban Hedgehogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):496-498. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130935.
APA Földvári, G., Jahfari, S., Rigó, K., Jablonszky, M., Szekeres, S., Majoros, G....Sprong, H. (2014). Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Urban Hedgehogs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 496-498. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130935.

Septic Arthritis Caused by Streptococcus suis Serotype 5 in Pig Farmer [PDF - 361 KB - 3 pages]
C. Gustavsson and M. Rasmussen
EID Gustavsson C, Rasmussen M. Septic Arthritis Caused by Streptococcus suis Serotype 5 in Pig Farmer. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):489-491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130535
AMA Gustavsson C, Rasmussen M. Septic Arthritis Caused by Streptococcus suis Serotype 5 in Pig Farmer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):489-491. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130535.
APA Gustavsson, C., & Rasmussen, M. (2014). Septic Arthritis Caused by Streptococcus suis Serotype 5 in Pig Farmer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 489-491. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130535.

Buruli Ulcer in Liberia, 2012 [PDF - 381 KB - 3 pages]
K. Kollie et al.
EID Kollie K, Amoako Y, Ake J, Mulbah T, Zaizay F, Abass M, et al. Buruli Ulcer in Liberia, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130708
AMA Kollie K, Amoako Y, Ake J, et al. Buruli Ulcer in Liberia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):496. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130708.
APA Kollie, K., Amoako, Y., Ake, J., Mulbah, T., Zaizay, F., Abass, M....Asiedu, K. (2014). Buruli Ulcer in Liberia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 496. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130708.

Cyclospora spp. in Drills, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea [PDF - 265 KB - 2 pages]
M. L. Eberhard et al.
EID Eberhard ML, Owens JR, Bishop HS, de Almeida ME, da Silva AJ. Cyclospora spp. in Drills, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):510-511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131368
AMA Eberhard ML, Owens JR, Bishop HS, et al. Cyclospora spp. in Drills, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):510-511. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131368.
APA Eberhard, M. L., Owens, J. R., Bishop, H. S., de Almeida, M. E., & da Silva, A. J. (2014). Cyclospora spp. in Drills, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 510-511. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131368.

Rift Valley Fever in Kedougou, Southeastern Senegal, 2012 [PDF - 363 KB - 3 pages]
A. Sow et al.
EID Sow A, Faye O, Faye O, Diallo D, Sadio BD, Weaver SC, et al. Rift Valley Fever in Kedougou, Southeastern Senegal, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):504-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131174
AMA Sow A, Faye O, Faye O, et al. Rift Valley Fever in Kedougou, Southeastern Senegal, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):504-506. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131174.
APA Sow, A., Faye, O., Faye, O., Diallo, D., Sadio, B. D., Weaver, S. C....Sall, A. A. (2014). Rift Valley Fever in Kedougou, Southeastern Senegal, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 504-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131174.

Atypical Streptococcus suis in Man, Argentina, 2013 [PDF - 268 KB - 3 pages]
R. Callejo et al.
EID Callejo R, Prieto M, Salamone F, Auger J, Goyette-Desjardins G, Gottschalk M. Atypical Streptococcus suis in Man, Argentina, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):500-502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131148
AMA Callejo R, Prieto M, Salamone F, et al. Atypical Streptococcus suis in Man, Argentina, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):500-502. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131148.
APA Callejo, R., Prieto, M., Salamone, F., Auger, J., Goyette-Desjardins, G., & Gottschalk, M. (2014). Atypical Streptococcus suis in Man, Argentina, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 500-502. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131148.

Mixed Scrub Typhus Genotype, Shandong, China, 2011 [PDF - 286 KB - 2 pages]
M. Zhang et al.
EID Zhang M, Zhao Z, Wang X, Li Z, Ding L, Ding S, et al. Mixed Scrub Typhus Genotype, Shandong, China, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):484-485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121349
AMA Zhang M, Zhao Z, Wang X, et al. Mixed Scrub Typhus Genotype, Shandong, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):484-485. doi:10.3201/eid2003.121349.
APA Zhang, M., Zhao, Z., Wang, X., Li, Z., Ding, L., Ding, S....Yang, L. (2014). Mixed Scrub Typhus Genotype, Shandong, China, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 484-485. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.121349.

Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds [PDF - 747 KB - 4 pages]
P. E. Mascarelli et al.
EID Mascarelli PE, McQuillan M, Harms CA, Harms RV, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):491-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130563
AMA Mascarelli PE, McQuillan M, Harms CA, et al. Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):491-492. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130563.
APA Mascarelli, P. E., McQuillan, M., Harms, C. A., Harms, R. V., & Breitschwerdt, E. B. (2014). Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 491-492. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130563.

Tick-borne Pathogens in Northwestern California, USA [PDF - 310 KB - 2 pages]
D. J. Salkeld et al.
EID Salkeld DJ, Cinkovich S, Nieto NC. Tick-borne Pathogens in Northwestern California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):493-494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130668
AMA Salkeld DJ, Cinkovich S, Nieto NC. Tick-borne Pathogens in Northwestern California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):493-494. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130668.
APA Salkeld, D. J., Cinkovich, S., & Nieto, N. C. (2014). Tick-borne Pathogens in Northwestern California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 493-494. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130668.

Novel Cetacean Morbillivirus in Guiana Dolphin, Brazil [PDF - 417 KB - 3 pages]
K. R. Groch et al.
EID Groch KR, Colosio AC, Marcondes M, Zucca D, Díaz-Delgado J, Niemeyer C, et al. Novel Cetacean Morbillivirus in Guiana Dolphin, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):511-513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131557
AMA Groch KR, Colosio AC, Marcondes M, et al. Novel Cetacean Morbillivirus in Guiana Dolphin, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):511-513. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131557.
APA Groch, K. R., Colosio, A. C., Marcondes, M., Zucca, D., Díaz-Delgado, J., Niemeyer, C....Luiz Catão-Dias, J. (2014). Novel Cetacean Morbillivirus in Guiana Dolphin, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 511-513. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131557.

Staphylococcus delphini and Methicillin-Resistant S. pseudintermedius in Horses, Canada [PDF - 325 KB - 3 pages]
J. W. Stull et al.
EID Stull JW, Slavić D, Rousseau J, Weese J. Staphylococcus delphini and Methicillin-Resistant S. pseudintermedius in Horses, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):485-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130139
AMA Stull JW, Slavić D, Rousseau J, et al. Staphylococcus delphini and Methicillin-Resistant S. pseudintermedius in Horses, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):485-487. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130139.
APA Stull, J. W., Slavić, D., Rousseau, J., & Weese, J. (2014). Staphylococcus delphini and Methicillin-Resistant S. pseudintermedius in Horses, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 485-487. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130139.

Rickettsia and Vector Biodiversity of Spotted Fever Focus, Atlantic Rain Forest Biome, Brazil [PDF - 402 KB - 3 pages]
N. O. Moura-Martiniano et al.
EID Moura-Martiniano NO, Machado-Ferreira E, Cardoso KM, Gehrke FS, Amorim M, Fogaça AC, et al. Rickettsia and Vector Biodiversity of Spotted Fever Focus, Atlantic Rain Forest Biome, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):498-500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131013
AMA Moura-Martiniano NO, Machado-Ferreira E, Cardoso KM, et al. Rickettsia and Vector Biodiversity of Spotted Fever Focus, Atlantic Rain Forest Biome, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):498-500. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131013.
APA Moura-Martiniano, N. O., Machado-Ferreira, E., Cardoso, K. M., Gehrke, F. S., Amorim, M., Fogaça, A. C....Schumaker, T. (2014). Rickettsia and Vector Biodiversity of Spotted Fever Focus, Atlantic Rain Forest Biome, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 498-500. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131013.

Concomitant Multidrug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Susceptible Tuberculous Meningitis [PDF - 311 KB - 2 pages]
C. Bernard et al.
EID Bernard C, Brossier F, Fréchet-Jachym M, Morand PC, Coignard S, Aslangul E, et al. Concomitant Multidrug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Susceptible Tuberculous Meningitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):506-507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131205
AMA Bernard C, Brossier F, Fréchet-Jachym M, et al. Concomitant Multidrug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Susceptible Tuberculous Meningitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):506-507. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131205.
APA Bernard, C., Brossier, F., Fréchet-Jachym, M., Morand, P. C., Coignard, S., Aslangul, E....Veziris, N. (2014). Concomitant Multidrug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Susceptible Tuberculous Meningitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 506-507. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131205.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum Antibodies in Humans, Japan, 2010–2011 [PDF - 303 KB - 2 pages]
Y. Yoshikawa et al.
EID Yoshikawa Y, Ohashi N, Wu D, Kawamori F, Ikegaya A, Watanabe T, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Antibodies in Humans, Japan, 2010–2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):508-509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131337
AMA Yoshikawa Y, Ohashi N, Wu D, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Antibodies in Humans, Japan, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):508-509. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131337.
APA Yoshikawa, Y., Ohashi, N., Wu, D., Kawamori, F., Ikegaya, A., Watanabe, T....Ando, S. (2014). Anaplasma phagocytophilum Antibodies in Humans, Japan, 2010–2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 508-509. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131337.

Kala-azar and Post–Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis, Assam, India [PDF - 324 KB - 3 pages]
A. Khan et al.
EID Khan A, Dutta P, Khan S, Baruah S, Raja D, Khound K, et al. Kala-azar and Post–Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis, Assam, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):487-489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130260
AMA Khan A, Dutta P, Khan S, et al. Kala-azar and Post–Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis, Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):487-489. doi:10.3201/eid2003.130260.
APA Khan, A., Dutta, P., Khan, S., Baruah, S., Raja, D., Khound, K....Mahanta, J. (2014). Kala-azar and Post–Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis, Assam, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 487-489. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.130260.

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania killicki, Algeria [PDF - 402 KB - 3 pages]
A. Izri et al.
EID Izri A, Bendjaballah A, Andriantsoanirina V, Durand R. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania killicki, Algeria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):502-504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131152
AMA Izri A, Bendjaballah A, Andriantsoanirina V, et al. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania killicki, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):502-504. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131152.
APA Izri, A., Bendjaballah, A., Andriantsoanirina, V., & Durand, R. (2014). Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania killicki, Algeria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 502-504. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131152.
Books and Media

Lifting the Impenetrable Veil: From Yellow Fever to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and SARS [PDF - 598 KB - 1 page]
S. Bloom
EID Bloom S. Lifting the Impenetrable Veil: From Yellow Fever to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131889
AMA Bloom S. Lifting the Impenetrable Veil: From Yellow Fever to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):516. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131889.
APA Bloom, S. (2014). Lifting the Impenetrable Veil: From Yellow Fever to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever and SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.131889.
In Memoriam

In Memoriam: James Harlan Steele (1913–2013) [PDF - 275 KB - 2 pages]
M. G. Schultz
EID Schultz MG. In Memoriam: James Harlan Steele (1913–2013). Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):514-515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.im2003
AMA Schultz MG. In Memoriam: James Harlan Steele (1913–2013). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):514-515. doi:10.3201/eid2003.im2003.
APA Schultz, M. G. (2014). In Memoriam: James Harlan Steele (1913–2013). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 514-515. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.im2003.
About the Cover

I Am the Master of My Fate [PDF - 307 KB - 2 pages]
EID I Am the Master of My Fate. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):518-519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.ac2003
AMA I Am the Master of My Fate. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):518-519. doi:10.3201/eid2003.ac2003.
APA (2014). I Am the Master of My Fate. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 518-519. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.ac2003.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii [PDF - 228 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.et2003
AMA Etymologia: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):379. doi:10.3201/eid2003.et2003.
APA (2014). Etymologia: Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 379. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.et2003.
Corrections

Correction: Vol. 19, No. 12
EID Correction: Vol. 19, No. 12. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.c12003
AMA Correction: Vol. 19, No. 12. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):516. doi:10.3201/eid2003.c12003.
APA (2014). Correction: Vol. 19, No. 12. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.c12003.

Correction: Vol. 19, No. 7 [PDF - 243 KB - 1 page]
EID Correction: Vol. 19, No. 7. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.c22003
AMA Correction: Vol. 19, No. 7. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(3):516. doi:10.3201/eid2003.c22003.
APA (2014). Correction: Vol. 19, No. 7. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(3), 516. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2003.c22003.
Page created: February 25, 2014
Page updated: February 25, 2014
Page reviewed: February 25, 2014
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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