Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link
Volume 20, Number 5—May 2014
Dispatch

Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates

Brent RaceComments to Author , Kimberly D. Meade-White, Katie Phillips, James Striebel, Richard Race, and Bruce Chesebro
Author affiliations: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana, USA

Main Article

Table 1

Squirrel monkeys inoculated with CWD or squirrel monkey–adapted CWD agents*

Disease incidence† Inoculum‡ Route of inoculation Titer inoculated§ Incubation days, range, (avg)¶ Weight change range, % (avg,%)
13/13 MD-1,2,3 Elk-1,2,3 WTD-1,2 Intracerebral 1.3 × 105-1.0 × 107 33–75 (46) −8 to −43 (−29.5)
11/12# MD-1,3 Elk-1,2,3 WTD-1,2 Oral 9.6 x 107-1.5 × 109 59–107 (68) −8 to −41 (−28)
2/2 SM-CWD Intracerebral NA 23–24 (23.5) −8 to −21 (−14.5)
0/1 Normal elk Intracerebral NA 82 NS 0
0/1 Buffer control Oral NA >108 −6
0/1 Normal elk Oral NA 123 NS +7

*An early version of some of these data is shown in Tables 1, 2 of (7). Since that time more infected animals have been euthanized and the data have been updated. CWD, chronic wasting disease; MD, mule deer; WTD, white-tailed deer; NA, not applicable; NS, no clinical transmissible spongiform encephalopathy signs.
†Number of monkeys in which prion disease developed/number inoculated.
‡Several different inocula were used for this study. Each individual animal was inoculated with 1 inoculum. Detailed descriptions can be found in (7).
§Infectivity titers were determined by using endpoint dilution titer in transgenic deer PrP mice and are listed as 50% infectious dose/gram of brain.
¶The range of incubation periods observed is shown as months postinoculation followed with the average incubation period of the group in parentheses. Monkeys listed as NS did not show any clinical signs compatible with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.
#Three monkeys from this group are not included in this calculation because they were euthanized before 45 months postinoculation for reasons unrelated to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy disease. The sole remaining animal in this group appeared normal at 108 months postinoculation.

Main Article

References
  1. Saunders  SE, Bartelt-Hunt  SL, Bartz  JC. Occurrence, transmission, and zoonotic potential of chronic wasting disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:36976 and. DOIPubMed
  2. Gilch  S, Chitoor  N, Taguchi  Y, Stuart  M, Jewell  JE, Schatzl  HM. Chronic wasting disease. Top Curr Chem. 2011;305:5177 and. DOIPubMed
  3. Kong  Q, Huang  S, Zou  W, Vanegas  D, Wang  M, Wu  D, Chronic wasting disease of elk: transmissibility to humans examined by transgenic mouse models. J Neurosci. 2005;25:79449 and. DOIPubMed
  4. Tamgüney  G, Giles  K, Bouzamondo-Bernstein  E, Bosque  PJ, Miller  MW, Safar  J, Transmission of elk and deer prions to transgenic mice. J Virol. 2006;80:910414 and. DOIPubMed
  5. Sandberg  MK, Al-Doujaily  H, Sigurdson  CJ, Glatzel  M, O'Malley  C, Powell  C, Chronic wasting disease prions are not transmissible to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:26517 and. DOIPubMed
  6. Wilson  R, Plinston  C, Hunter  N, Casalone  C, Corona  C, Tagliavini  F, Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human prion protein. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:16249 and. DOIPubMed
  7. Race  B, Meade-White  KD, Miller  MW, Barbian  KD, Rubenstein  R, LaFauci  G, Susceptibilities of nonhuman primates to chronic wasting disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:136676 and. DOIPubMed
  8. Lloyd  S, Mead  S, Collinge  J. Genetics of prion disease. Top Curr Chem. 2011;305:122 and. DOIPubMed
  9. Herzog  C, Riviere  J, Lescoutra-Etchegaray  N, Charbonnier  A, Leblanc  V, Sales  N, PrPTSE distribution in a primate model of variant, sporadic, and iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Virol. 2005;79:1433945 and. DOIPubMed
  10. Lasmézas  CI, Deslys  JP, Demaimay  R, Adjou  KT, Lamoury  F, Dormont  D, BSE transmission to macaques. Nature. 1996;381:7434 and. DOIPubMed
  11. Ono  F, Terao  K, Tase  N, Hiyaoka  A, Ohyama  A, Tezuka  Y, Experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to cynomolgus macaques, a non-human primate. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011;64:504 .PubMed
  12. Brown  P, Gibbs  CJ Jr, Rodgers-Johnson  P, Asher  DM, Sulima  MP, Bacote  A, Human spongiform encephalopathy: the National Institutes of Health series of 300 cases of experimentally transmitted disease. Ann Neurol. 1994;35:51329 and. DOIPubMed
  13. Raymond  GJ, Bossers  A, Raymond  LD, O'Rourke  KI, McHolland  LE, Bryant  PK III, Evidence of a molecular barrier limiting susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to chronic wasting disease. EMBO J. 2000;19:442530 and. DOIPubMed
  14. Belay  ED, Maddox  RA, Williams  ES, Miller  MW, Gambetti  P, Schonberger  LB. Chronic wasting disease and potential transmission to humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:97784 and. DOIPubMed
  15. MaWhinney S. Pape WJ, Forster JE, Anderson CA, Bosque P, Miller MW. Human prion disease and relative risk associated with chronic wasting disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:152735 and. DOIPubMed

Main Article

Page created: April 17, 2014
Page updated: April 17, 2014
Page reviewed: April 17, 2014
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
file_external