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Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014

Geographic Distribution of MERS Coronavirus among Dromedary Camels, Africa

Chantal B.E.M. Reusken1Comments to Author , Lilia Messadi1, Ashenafi Feyisa1, Hussaini Ularamu1, Gert-Jan Godeke, Agom Danmarwa, Fufa Dawo, Mohamed Jemli, Simenew Melaku, David Shamaki, Yusuf Woma, Yiltawe Wungak, Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin, Ilse Zutt, Berend-Jan Bosch, Bart L. Haagmans, and Marion P.G. Koopmans
Author affiliations: Netherlands Centre for Infectious Disease Control, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (C.B.E.M. Reusken, G.-J. Godeke, I. Zutt, M.P.G. Koopmans); Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (C.B.E.M. Reusken, B.L. Haagmans, M.P.G. Koopmans); National Veterinary Medicine School, University of La Manouba, Sidi Thabet, Tunisia (L. Messadi, M. Jemli); Addis Ababa University College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Bishoftu, Ethiopia (A. Feyisa, F. Dawo, S. Melaku, E. Z. Gebremedhin); National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria (H. Ularamu, A. Danmarwa, D. Shamaki, Y. Woma, Y. Wungak); Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands (B.-J. Bosch); 1These authors contributed equally to this article.

Main Article

Table 1

Overview of serologic evidence for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus among dromedary camels, Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

Country Year No. camels* % Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibodies† Reference
United Arab Emirates 2013 500 (A,J) 96‡,§,¶ (6)
2013 59 (A) 97# , 100**, 98§ (7)
2003 151 (A) 100§,‡ (6)
Egypt 2013 110 (A) 94§, 98†† (4)
2013 17 (A) 82†† (5)
Spain (Canary Islands) 2012–2013 97 (A) 14¶,§ (2)
2012–2013 8 (J) 13¶,§ (2)
Ethiopia 2010–2011 31 (J) 93¶ This study
2010–2011 157 (A) 97¶ This study
Ethiopia, Sudan 2013 35 (A) 97†† (5)
Jordan 2013 11 (J) 100¶,§ (3)
Nigeria 2010–2011 358 (A) 94¶ This study
Oman 2013 50 (A) 100¶,§ (2)
Qatar 2013 14 (A) 100¶,§ (10)
Saudi Arabia 2010–2013 65 (J) 72†† (8)
2010–2013 245 (A) 95†† (8)
2013 104 (J) 55‡‡ (9)
2013 98 (A) 95‡‡ (9)
2010 21 (J) 76‡‡ (9)
2010 23 (A) 91‡‡ (9)
2009 56 (J) 72‡‡ (9)
2009 26 (A) 92‡‡ (9)
2004 6 (A) 100‡‡ (9)
1996 6 (A) 100‡‡ (9)
1994 123 (A) 93‡‡ (9)
1993 2 (A) 100‡‡ (9)
1992 1 (A) 100‡‡ (9)
Tunisia 2009 46 (J) 30¶ This study
2009 158 (A) 54¶ This study

*Camel age range indicated where known: J, juvenile ≤2 y of age ; A, adult >2 y of age.
†As determined by: ‡recombinant spike IFA.
§Neutralization test.
¶S1 micro-array.
#Nucleocapsid Western blot.
**Whole virus IFA.
††Pseudoparticle neutralization test.
‡‡Complete virus infected cell ELISA.

Main Article

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1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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