Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014
Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, Kenya, 1992–2013
|Region||County†||Husbandry/ management||Year||No. samples||No. rELISA positive samples (%)||No. rIFA positive samples/rELISA positive samples (%)|
|Northeastern||Mandera/ Wajir‡||Nomadic§||2008||162||91 (56.2)||86/91 (94.5)|
|Eastern||Isiolo||Nomadic§||1998||12||2 (16.7)||1/2 (50.0)|
|Marsabit||Nomadic§||1999||41||32 (78.0)||28/32 (87.5)|
|Variable||Nomadic§||2000||73||39 (53.4)||38/39 (97.4)|
|Marsabit||Nomadic§||2008||21||12 (57.1)||12/12 (100.0)|
|Marsabit||Nomadic§||2013||7||7 (100.0)||7/7 (100.0)|
|Rift Valley||Laikipia¶||Ranch#||1992||22||1 (4.5)||0/1 (0.0)|
|Laikipia||Ranch#||1996||37||2 (5.4)||2/2 (100.0)|
|Laikipia||Ranch#||1999||175||32 (18.3)||30/32 (93.8)|
|Turkana||Nomadic**||1999||50||7 (14.0)||6/7 (85.7)|
|Laikipia||Ranch#||2000||56||2 (3.6)||2/2 (100.0)|
|Baringo||Research center††||2007||28||0 (0.0)||ND|
|Laikipia||Ranch||2013||40||1 (2.5)||1/1 (100.0)|
|Total||774||228 (29.5)||213/228 (93.4)|
*MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; rELISA, recombinant ELISA for MERS-CoV subunit 1 spike protein (serum samples were tested at a dilution of 1:100); rIFA, recombinant immunofluorescence assay for MERS-CoV spike protein expression in Vero cells (serum samples were tested at a dilution of 1:40; ND, not done.
†Designated county refers to place of sampling or location in which camels were primarily located.
‡Data was merged because both counties had comparable antibody levels.
§High density of camels and regular contact between herds, including exchange of animals between herds in relation to lactation and reproduction status.
¶Formerly from Pakistan.
#Low density of camels and only sporadic contact between herds, with introduction of new animals only by purchase or livestock raiding, or restocking of camels.
**Low density of camels but more frequent contact between herds than on ranches This includes encounters at waterholes and night enclosures, as well as sharing of pastures with daily to weekly contact between herds.
††Isolated herd that originated in Wajir but was kept under quarantine-like isolation conditions for experimental work since 1998.
1These authors contributed equally to this article.