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Volume 21, Number 2—February 2015

Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014

Paola Katrina G. Ching, Vikki Carr de los Reyes, Maria Nemia Sucaldito, Enrique Tayag, Alah Baby Columna-Vingno, Fedelino F. Malbas, Gilbert C. Bolo, James Sejvar, Debbie Eagles, Geoffrey Playford, Erica Dueger, Yoshihiro Kaku, Shigeru Morikawa, Makoto Kuroda, Glenn A. Marsh, Sam McCullough, and A. Ruth FoxwellComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Department of Health, Manila, Philippines (P.K.G. Ching, V.C. de los Reyes, M.N. Sucaldito, E. Tayag, F.F. Malbas Jr.); Center for Health Development Region XII, General Santos, Philippines (A.B. Columna-Vingno); Department of Agriculture, Manila (G.C. Bolo, Jr); World Health Organization, Manila (J.J. Sejvar, D. Eagles, G. Playford, E. Dueger, A.R. Foxwell); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (J.J. Sejvar, E. Dueger); Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (D. Eagles, G.A. Marsh, S. McCullough); University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (G. Playford); National Institute of Infectious Disease, Tokyo, Japan (Y. Kaku, S. Morikawa, M. Kuroda); Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia (A.R. Foxwell)

Main Article

Table 2

Chronologic serologic test and nucleic acid detection results for 3 patients in NiV outbreak, Philippines, 2014*

Onset of clinical signs
Date of sample collection
IgM ELISA ratio
NiV SNT titer†
NiV SNT titer‡
Nucleic acid detection
1 (AES)
Apr 7
Apr 12 11.8 Neg 1:150 Pos (qPCR) from serum of Apr 12
May 11 8.5 1:80 1:1,200 NA
May 22
2 (AES)
Apr 7
Apr 15 13.2 (6 am), 12.9 (3 pm) 1:10 1:200 Pos (NGS) from CSF of Apr 12
May 8 11.3 1:80 1:2,600 NA
May 21
3 (ILI) Apr 2 May 21 5 1:40 1:420 NA

*The cutoff for the IgM NiV ELISA is a ratio of 2, for SNT using infectious NiV is ≥1:4, and for pseudotype-based SNT is 1:80. All samples were serum except for the sample tested by NGS, which was CSF. AES, acute encephalitis syndrome; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; ILI, influenza-like illness; NA, not applicable; Neg, negative; NGS, next-generation sequencing; NiV, Nipah virus; pos, positive; qPCR, quantitative PCR for NiV; SNT, serum neutralization test.
†Test used infectious NiV.
‡Test used pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus.

Main Article

Page created: January 21, 2015
Page updated: January 21, 2015
Page reviewed: January 21, 2015
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