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Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015

Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999–2012

Linda Verhoef1Comments to Author , Joanne Hewitt1, Leslie Barclay1, Sharia Ahmed, Rob Lake, Aron J. Hall, Ben Lopman, Annelies Kroneman, Harry Vennema, Jan VinjA(c), and Marion Koopmans

Author affiliations: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (L. Verhoef, A. Kroneman, H. Vennema, M. Koopmans); Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Porirua, New Zealand (J. Hewitt, R. Lake); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (L. Barclay, S.M. Ahmed, A.J. Hall, B. Lopman, J. VinjA(c)); Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (M. Koopmans)

Main Article


Proportion of foodborne outbreaks per category, estimated according to different databases for 2009–2012*

Genotype Database
FBVE/Noronet, n = 1,715 ESR-EpiSurv, –n = 584 CaliciNet, –n = 3,094 Systematic literature review, n = 8 Global profile, –n = 5,393
GII.4 0.07 (0.06–0.09) 0.09 (0.06–0.11) 0.12 (0.10–0.14) 0.12 (0.00–0.40) 0.10 (0.09–0.11)
Other genotypes 0.31 (0.25–0.37) 0.25 (0.17–0.33) 0.26 (0.23–0.30) 0.67 (0.16–0.97) 0.27 (0.25–0.30)
Mixed outbreaks 0.75 (0.48–0.94) 0.50 (0.20–0.75) 0.16 (0.05–0.33) CNBC 0.37 (0.24–0.52)
Foodborne proportion† 0.12 0.13 0.16 CNBC 0.14

*FBVE/Noronet polymerase profile was used to compare with ESR-EpiSurv polymerase, systematic literature review polymerase, and CaliciNet capsid profiles. CNBC, could not be calculated; ESR, Institute of Environmental Science and Research; FBVE, Foodborne Viruses in Europe. Estimates in italics do not statistically differ from the FBVE/Noronet polymerase profile as a reference; estimates in boldface do statistically differ. †Proportion of outbreaks with an unknown mode of transmission estimated to be attributed to food.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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