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Issue Cover for Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015

Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015

[PDF - 8.39 MB - 191 pages]

Perspective

Reappearance of Chikungunya, Formerly Called Dengue, in the Americas [PDF - 568 KB - 5 pages]
S. B. Halstead

After an absence of ≈200 years, chikungunya returned to the American tropics in 2013. The virus is maintained in a complex African zoonotic cycle but escapes into an urban cycle at 40- to 50-year intervals, causing global pandemics. In 1823, classical chikungunya, a viral exanthem in humans, occurred on Zanzibar, and in 1827, it arrived in the Caribbean and spread to North and South America. In Zanzibar, the disease was known as kidenga pepo, Swahili for a sudden cramp-like seizure caused by an evil spirit; in Cuba, it was known as dengue, a Spanish homonym of denga. During the eighteenth century, dengue (present-day chikungunya) was distinguished from breakbone fever (present-day dengue), another febrile exanthem. In the twentieth century, experiments resulted in the recovery and naming of present-day dengue viruses. In 1952, chikungunya virus was recovered during an outbreak in Tanzania, but by then, the virus had lost its original name to present-day dengue viruses.

EID Halstead SB. Reappearance of Chikungunya, Formerly Called Dengue, in the Americas. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141723
AMA Halstead SB. Reappearance of Chikungunya, Formerly Called Dengue, in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):561. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141723.
APA Halstead, S. B. (2015). Reappearance of Chikungunya, Formerly Called Dengue, in the Americas. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 561. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141723.
Synopses

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Southern Chile, 1995–2012 [PDF - 1.14 MB - 7 pages]
R. Riquelme et al.

Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995–2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate.

EID Riquelme R, Rioseco M, Bastidas L, Trincado D, Riquelme M, Loyola H, et al. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Southern Chile, 1995–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):562-568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141437
AMA Riquelme R, Rioseco M, Bastidas L, et al. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Southern Chile, 1995–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):562-568. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141437.
APA Riquelme, R., Rioseco, M., Bastidas, L., Trincado, D., Riquelme, M., Loyola, H....Valdivieso, F. (2015). Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Southern Chile, 1995–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 562-568. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141437.

Medscape CME Activity
Animal-Associated Exposure to Rabies Virus among Travelers, 1997–2012 [PDF - 1.98 MB - 9 pages]
P. Gautret et al.

Among travelers, rabies cases are rare, but animal bites are relatively common. To determine which travelers are at highest risk for rabies, we studied 2,697 travelers receiving care for animal-related exposures and requiring rabies postexposure prophylaxis at GeoSentinel clinics during 1997–2012. No specific demographic characteristics differentiated these travelers from other travelers seeking medical care, making it challenging to identify travelers who might benefit from reinforced pretravel rabies prevention counseling. Median travel duration was short for these travelers: 15 days for those seeking care after completion of travel and 20 days for those seeking care during travel. This finding contradicts the view that preexposure rabies vaccine recommendations should be partly based on longer travel durations. Over half of exposures occurred in Thailand, Indonesia, Nepal, China, and India. International travelers to rabies-endemic regions, particularly Asia, should be informed about potential rabies exposure and benefits of pretravel vaccination, regardless of demographics or length of stay.

EID Gautret P, Harvey K, Pandey P, Lim P, Leder K, Piyaphanee W, et al. Animal-Associated Exposure to Rabies Virus among Travelers, 1997–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):569-577. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141479
AMA Gautret P, Harvey K, Pandey P, et al. Animal-Associated Exposure to Rabies Virus among Travelers, 1997–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):569-577. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141479.
APA Gautret, P., Harvey, K., Pandey, P., Lim, P., Leder, K., Piyaphanee, W....Parola, P. (2015). Animal-Associated Exposure to Rabies Virus among Travelers, 1997–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 569-577. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141479.

Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease from Exotic Infection to Global Health Priority, Liberia, Mid-2014 [PDF - 1.61 MB - 7 pages]
M. Arwady et al.

Over the span of a few weeks during July and August 2014, events in West Africa changed perceptions of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from an exotic tropical disease to a priority for global health security. We describe observations during that time of a field team from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and personnel of the Liberian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. We outline the early epidemiology of EVD within Liberia, including the practical limitations on surveillance and the effect on the country’s health care system, such as infections among health care workers. During this time, priorities included strengthening EVD surveillance; establishing safe settings for EVD patient care (and considering alternative isolation and care models when Ebola Treatment Units were overwhelmed); improving infection control practices; establishing an incident management system; and working with Liberian airport authorities to implement EVD screening of departing passengers.

EID Arwady M, Bawo L, Hunter JC, Massaquoi M, Matanock A, Dahn B, et al. Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease from Exotic Infection to Global Health Priority, Liberia, Mid-2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):578-584. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141940
AMA Arwady M, Bawo L, Hunter JC, et al. Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease from Exotic Infection to Global Health Priority, Liberia, Mid-2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):578-584. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141940.
APA Arwady, M., Bawo, L., Hunter, J. C., Massaquoi, M., Matanock, A., Dahn, B....De Cock, K. M. (2015). Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease from Exotic Infection to Global Health Priority, Liberia, Mid-2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 578-584. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141940.
Research

Population Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Invasive Serotype IV Group B Streptococcus, Toronto, Ontario, Canada [PDF - 1.21 MB - 7 pages]
S. Teatero et al.

We recently showed that 37/600 (6.2%) invasive infections with group B Streptococcus (GBS) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, were caused by serotype IV strains. We report a relatively high level of genetic diversity in 37 invasive strains of this emerging GBS serotype. Multilocus sequence typing identified 6 sequence types (STs) that belonged to 3 clonal complexes. Most isolates were ST-459 (19/37, 51%) and ST-452 (11/37, 30%), but we also identified ST-291, ST-3, ST-196, and a novel ST-682. We detected further diversity by performing whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis and found evidence of recombination events contributing to variation in some serotype IV GBS strains. We also evaluated antimicrobial drug resistance and found that ST-459 strains were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin, whereas strains of other STs were, for the most part, susceptible to these antimicrobial drugs.

EID Teatero S, McGeer A, Li A, Gomes J, Seah C, Demczuk W, et al. Population Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Invasive Serotype IV Group B Streptococcus, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):585-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.140759
AMA Teatero S, McGeer A, Li A, et al. Population Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Invasive Serotype IV Group B Streptococcus, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):585-591. doi:10.3201/eid2104.140759.
APA Teatero, S., McGeer, A., Li, A., Gomes, J., Seah, C., Demczuk, W....Fittipaldi, N. (2015). Population Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Invasive Serotype IV Group B Streptococcus, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 585-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.140759.

Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999–2012 [PDF - 1.42 MB - 8 pages]
L. Verhoef et al.

Worldwide, noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis. They can be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly through contaminated food, water, or environments. To estimate the proportion of foodborne infections caused by noroviruses on a global scale, we used norovirus transmission and genotyping information from multiple international outbreak surveillance systems (Noronet, CaliciNet, EpiSurv) and from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. The proportion of outbreaks caused by food was determined by genotype and/or genogroup. Analysis resulted in the following final global profiles: foodborne transmission is attributed to 10% (range 9%%–11%) of all genotype GII.4 outbreaks, 27% (25%–30%) of outbreaks caused by all other single genotypes, and 37% (24%%–52%) of outbreaks caused by mixtures of GII.4 and other noroviruses. When these profiles are applied to global outbreak surveillance data, results indicate that ≈14% of all norovirus outbreaks are attributed to food.

EID Verhoef L, Hewitt J, Barclay L, Ahmed SM, Lake R, Hall AJ, et al. Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999–2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):592-599. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141073
AMA Verhoef L, Hewitt J, Barclay L, et al. Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):592-599. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141073.
APA Verhoef, L., Hewitt, J., Barclay, L., Ahmed, S. M., Lake, R., Hall, A. J....Koopmans, M. (2015). Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 592-599. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141073.

Medscape CME Activity
Deaths Associated with Respiratory Syncytial and Influenza Viruses among Persons ≥5 Years of Age in HIV-Prevalent Area, South Africa, 1998–2009 [PDF - 1.14 MB - 9 pages]
C. Cohen et al.

We estimated deaths attributable to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among persons >5 years of age in South Africa during 1998–2009 by applying regression models to monthly deaths and laboratory surveillance data. Rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years. The mean annual number of seasonal influenza–associated deaths was 9,093 (rate 21.6). Persons >65 years of age and HIV-positive persons accounted for 50% (n = 4,552) and 28% (n = 2,564) of overall seasonal influenza-associated deaths, respectively. In 2009, we estimated 4,113 (rate 9.2) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09–associated deaths. The mean of annual RSV-associated deaths during the study period was 511 (rate 1.2); no RSV-associated deaths were estimated in persons >45 years of age. Our findings support the recommendation for influenza vaccination of older persons and HIV-positive persons. Surveillance for RSV should be strengthened to clarify the public health implications and severity of illness associated with RSV infection in South Africa.

EID Cohen C, Walaza S, Viboud C, Cohen AL, Madhi SA, Venter M, et al. Deaths Associated with Respiratory Syncytial and Influenza Viruses among Persons ≥5 Years of Age in HIV-Prevalent Area, South Africa, 1998–20091. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):600-608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141033
AMA Cohen C, Walaza S, Viboud C, et al. Deaths Associated with Respiratory Syncytial and Influenza Viruses among Persons ≥5 Years of Age in HIV-Prevalent Area, South Africa, 1998–20091. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):600-608. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141033.
APA Cohen, C., Walaza, S., Viboud, C., Cohen, A. L., Madhi, S. A., Venter, M....Tempia, S. (2015). Deaths Associated with Respiratory Syncytial and Influenza Viruses among Persons ≥5 Years of Age in HIV-Prevalent Area, South Africa, 1998–20091. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 600-608. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141033.

Sequence Variability and Geographic Distribution of Lassa Virus, Sierra Leone [PDF - 4.53 MB - 10 pages]
T. A. Leski et al.

Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone.

EID Leski TA, Stockelman MG, Moses LM, Park M, Stenger DA, Ansumana R, et al. Sequence Variability and Geographic Distribution of Lassa Virus, Sierra Leone. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):609-618. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141469
AMA Leski TA, Stockelman MG, Moses LM, et al. Sequence Variability and Geographic Distribution of Lassa Virus, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):609-618. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141469.
APA Leski, T. A., Stockelman, M. G., Moses, L. M., Park, M., Stenger, D. A., Ansumana, R....Lin, B. (2015). Sequence Variability and Geographic Distribution of Lassa Virus, Sierra Leone. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 609-618. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141469.

Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Transmission between Finches and Poultry [PDF - 2.44 MB - 10 pages]
J. C. Jones et al.

Low pathogenicity avian influenza A(H7N9) virus has been detected in poultry since 2013, and the virus has caused >450 infections in humans. The mode of subtype H7N9 virus transmission between avian species remains largely unknown, but various wild birds have been implicated as a source of transmission. H7N9 virus was recently detected in a wild sparrow in Shanghai, China, and passerine birds, such as finches, which share space and resources with wild migratory birds, poultry, and humans, can be productively infected with the virus. We demonstrate that interspecies transmission of H7N9 virus occurs readily between society finches and bobwhite quail but only sporadically between finches and chickens. Inoculated finches are better able to infect naive poultry than the reverse. Transmission occurs through shared water but not through the airborne route. It is therefore conceivable that passerine birds may serve as vectors for dissemination of H7N9 virus to domestic poultry.

EID Jones JC, Sonnberg S, Webby R, Webster RG. Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Transmission between Finches and Poultry. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):619-628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141703
AMA Jones JC, Sonnberg S, Webby R, et al. Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Transmission between Finches and Poultry. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):619-628. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141703.
APA Jones, J. C., Sonnberg, S., Webby, R., & Webster, R. G. (2015). Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Transmission between Finches and Poultry. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 619-628. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141703.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection among Workers at Live Bird Markets, Bangladesh, 2009–2010 [PDF - 1.81 MB - 9 pages]
S. Nasreen et al.

The risk for influenza A(H5N1) virus infection is unclear among poultry workers in countries where the virus is endemic. To assess H5N1 seroprevalence and seroconversion among workers at live bird markets (LBMs) in Bangladesh, we followed a cohort of workers from 12 LBMs with existing avian influenza surveillance. Serum samples from workers were tested for H5N1 antibodies at the end of the study or when LBM samples first had H5N1 virus–positive test results. Of 404 workers, 9 (2%) were seropositive at baseline. Of 284 workers who completed the study and were seronegative at baseline, 6 (2%) seroconverted (7 cases/100 poultry worker–years). Workers who frequently fed poultry, cleaned feces from pens, cleaned food/water containers, and did not wash hands after touching sick poultry had a 7.6 times higher risk for infection compared with workers who infrequently performed these behaviors. Despite frequent exposure to H5N1 virus, LBM workers showed evidence of only sporadic infection.

EID Nasreen S, Khan S, Luby SP, Gurley ES, Abedin J, Zaman R, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection among Workers at Live Bird Markets, Bangladesh, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):629-637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141281
AMA Nasreen S, Khan S, Luby SP, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection among Workers at Live Bird Markets, Bangladesh, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):629-637. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141281.
APA Nasreen, S., Khan, S., Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S., Abedin, J., Zaman, R....Azziz-Baumgartner, E. (2015). Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection among Workers at Live Bird Markets, Bangladesh, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 629-637. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141281.

Increased Risk for Group B Streptococcus Sepsis in Young Infants Exposed to HIV, Soweto, South Africa, 2004–2008 [PDF - 2.90 MB - 8 pages]
C. L. Cutland et al.

Although group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of severe invasive disease in young infants worldwide, epidemiologic data and knowledge about risk factors for the disease are lacking from low- to middle-income countries. To determine the epidemiology of invasive GBS disease among young infants in a setting with high maternal HIV infection, we conducted hospital-based surveillance during 2004–2008 in Soweto, South Africa. Overall GBS incidence was 2.72 cases/1,000 live births (1.50 and 1.22, respectively, among infants with early-onset disease [EOD] and late-onset [LOD] disease). Risk for EOD and LOD was higher for HIV-exposed than HIV-unexposed infants. GBS serotypes Ia and III accounted for 84.0% of cases, and 16.9% of infected infants died. We estimate that use of trivalent GBS vaccine (serotypes Ia, Ib, and III) could prevent 2,105 invasive GBS cases and 278 deaths annually among infants in South Africa; therefore, vaccination of all pregnant women in this country should be explored.

EID Cutland CL, Schrag SJ, Thigpen MC, Velaphi SC, Wadula J, Adrian PV, et al. Increased Risk for Group B Streptococcus Sepsis in Young Infants Exposed to HIV, Soweto, South Africa, 2004–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):638-645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141562
AMA Cutland CL, Schrag SJ, Thigpen MC, et al. Increased Risk for Group B Streptococcus Sepsis in Young Infants Exposed to HIV, Soweto, South Africa, 2004–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):638-645. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141562.
APA Cutland, C. L., Schrag, S. J., Thigpen, M. C., Velaphi, S. C., Wadula, J., Adrian, P. V....Madhi, S. A. (2015). Increased Risk for Group B Streptococcus Sepsis in Young Infants Exposed to HIV, Soweto, South Africa, 2004–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 638-645. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141562.
Dispatches

La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States [PDF - 2.54 MB - 4 pages]
M. Harris et al.

La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics.

EID Harris M, Dotseth EJ, Jackson B, Zink SD, Marek PE, Kramer LD, et al. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):646-649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.140734
AMA Harris M, Dotseth EJ, Jackson B, et al. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):646-649. doi:10.3201/eid2104.140734.
APA Harris, M., Dotseth, E. J., Jackson, B., Zink, S. D., Marek, P. E., Kramer, L. D....Hawley, D. M. (2015). La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 646-649. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.140734.

Pathogenicity of 2 Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strains in Gnotobiotic Pigs [PDF - 2.88 MB - 5 pages]
K. Jung et al.

To verify whether porcine deltacoronavirus infection induces disease, we inoculated gnotobiotic pigs with 2 virus strains (OH-FD22 and OH-FD100) identified by 2 specific reverse transcription PCRs. At 21–120 h postinoculation, pigs exhibited severe diarrhea, vomiting, fecal shedding of virus, and severe atrophic enteritis. These findings confirm that these 2 strains are enteropathogenic in pigs.

EID Jung K, Hu H, Eyerly B, Lu Z, Chepngeno J, Saif LJ. Pathogenicity of 2 Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strains in Gnotobiotic Pigs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):650-654. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141859
AMA Jung K, Hu H, Eyerly B, et al. Pathogenicity of 2 Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strains in Gnotobiotic Pigs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):650-654. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141859.
APA Jung, K., Hu, H., Eyerly, B., Lu, Z., Chepngeno, J., & Saif, L. J. (2015). Pathogenicity of 2 Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strains in Gnotobiotic Pigs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 650-654. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141859.

Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, Gulf of Guinea Region, Africa [PDF - 2.88 MB - 5 pages]
M. Baltazar et al.

We identified 3 lineages among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates in the Gulf of Guinea region in Africa during the 2000s. However, the MDR H58 haplotype, which predominates in southern Asia and Kenya, was not identified. MDR quinolone-susceptible isolates contained a 190-kb incHI1 pST2 plasmid or a 50-kb incN pST3 plasmid.

EID Baltazar M, Ngandjio A, Holt K, Lepillet E, Pardos de la Gandara M, Collard J, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, Gulf of Guinea Region, Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):655-659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141355
AMA Baltazar M, Ngandjio A, Holt K, et al. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, Gulf of Guinea Region, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):655-659. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141355.
APA Baltazar, M., Ngandjio, A., Holt, K., Lepillet, E., Pardos de la Gandara, M., Collard, J....Weill, F. (2015). Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, Gulf of Guinea Region, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 655-659. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141355.

Candidate New Rotavirus Species in Sheltered Dogs, Hungary [PDF - 1.82 MB - 4 pages]
E. Mihalov-Kovács et al.

We identified unusual rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from sheltered dogs in Hungary by viral metagenomics. The novel rotavirus species displayed limited genome sequence homology to representatives of the 8 rotavirus species, A–H, and qualifies as a candidate new rotavirus species that we tentatively named Rotavirus I.

EID Mihalov-Kovács E, Gellért Á, Marton S, Farkas SL, Fehér E, Oldal M, et al. Candidate New Rotavirus Species in Sheltered Dogs, Hungary. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):660-663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141370
AMA Mihalov-Kovács E, Gellért Á, Marton S, et al. Candidate New Rotavirus Species in Sheltered Dogs, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):660-663. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141370.
APA Mihalov-Kovács, E., Gellért, Á., Marton, S., Farkas, S. L., Fehér, E., Oldal, M....Bányai, K. (2015). Candidate New Rotavirus Species in Sheltered Dogs, Hungary. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 660-663. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141370.

Severity of Influenza A(H1N1) Illness and Emergence of D225G Variant, 2013–14 Influenza Season, Florida, USA [PDF - 1.63 MB - 4 pages]
N. M. Iovine et al.

Despite a regional decline in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections during 2013–14, cases at a Florida hospital were more severe than those during 2009–10. Examined strains had a hemagglutinin polymorphism associated with enhanced binding to lower respiratory tract receptors. Genetic changes in this virus must be monitored to predict the effect of future pandemic viruses.

EID Iovine NM, Morris J, Fredenburg K, Rand KH, Alnuaimat H, Lipori G, et al. Severity of Influenza A(H1N1) Illness and Emergence of D225G Variant, 2013–14 Influenza Season, Florida, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):664-667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141375
AMA Iovine NM, Morris J, Fredenburg K, et al. Severity of Influenza A(H1N1) Illness and Emergence of D225G Variant, 2013–14 Influenza Season, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):664-667. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141375.
APA Iovine, N. M., Morris, J., Fredenburg, K., Rand, K. H., Alnuaimat, H., Lipori, G....Lednicky, J. (2015). Severity of Influenza A(H1N1) Illness and Emergence of D225G Variant, 2013–14 Influenza Season, Florida, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 664-667. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141375.

Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus [PDF - 3.10 MB - 5 pages]
A. Postel et al.

To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs.

EID Postel A, Schmeiser S, Oguzoglu T, Indenbirken D, Alawi M, Fischer N, et al. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):668-672. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141441
AMA Postel A, Schmeiser S, Oguzoglu T, et al. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):668-672. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141441.
APA Postel, A., Schmeiser, S., Oguzoglu, T., Indenbirken, D., Alawi, M., Fischer, N....Becher, P. (2015). Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 668-672. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141441.

Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Viruses in Chickens in Retail Poultry Shops, Pakistan, 2009–2010 [PDF - 2.20 MB - 4 pages]
M. Chaudhry et al.

Phylogenetic analysis of influenza viruses collected during December 2009–February 2010 from chickens in live poultry retail shops in Lahore, Pakistan, showed influenza A(H9N2) lineage polymerase and nonstructural genes generate through inter- and intrasubtypic reassortments. Many amino acid signatures observed were characteristic of human isolates; hence, their circulation could enhance inter- or intrasubtypic reassortment.

EID Chaudhry M, Angot A, Rashid HB, Cattoli G, Hussain M, Trovò G, et al. Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Viruses in Chickens in Retail Poultry Shops, Pakistan, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):673-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141570
AMA Chaudhry M, Angot A, Rashid HB, et al. Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Viruses in Chickens in Retail Poultry Shops, Pakistan, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):673-676. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141570.
APA Chaudhry, M., Angot, A., Rashid, H. B., Cattoli, G., Hussain, M., Trovò, G....Capua, I. (2015). Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H9N2) Viruses in Chickens in Retail Poultry Shops, Pakistan, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 673-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141570.

Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014 [PDF - 1.86 MB - 4 pages]
J. Wang et al.

During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals.

EID Wang J, Wang M, Wang S, Liu Z, Shen N, Si W, et al. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):677-680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141627
AMA Wang J, Wang M, Wang S, et al. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):677-680. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141627.
APA Wang, J., Wang, M., Wang, S., Liu, Z., Shen, N., Si, W....Cai, X. (2015). Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 677-680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141627.

West Nile Virus Infection Incidence Based on Donated Blood Samples and Neuroinvasive Disease Reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012 [PDF - 299 KB - 3 pages]
D. T. Cervantes et al.

During the 2012 outbreak of West Nile virus in the United States, approximately one third of the cases were in Texas. Of those, about half occurred in northern Texas. Models based on infected blood donors and persons with neuroinvasive disease showed, respectively, that ≈0.72% and 1.98% of persons in northern Texas became infected.

EID Cervantes DT, Chen S, Sutor LJ, Stonecipher S, Janoski N, Wright DJ, et al. West Nile Virus Infection Incidence Based on Donated Blood Samples and Neuroinvasive Disease Reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):681-683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141178
AMA Cervantes DT, Chen S, Sutor LJ, et al. West Nile Virus Infection Incidence Based on Donated Blood Samples and Neuroinvasive Disease Reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):681-683. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141178.
APA Cervantes, D. T., Chen, S., Sutor, L. J., Stonecipher, S., Janoski, N., Wright, D. J....Murphy, E. L. (2015). West Nile Virus Infection Incidence Based on Donated Blood Samples and Neuroinvasive Disease Reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 681-683. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141178.

Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark [PDF - 2.59 MB - 4 pages]
J. S. Krog et al.

Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June–August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.

EID Krog JS, Hansen MS, Holm E, Hjulsager CK, Chriél M, Pedersen K, et al. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):684-687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141484
AMA Krog JS, Hansen MS, Holm E, et al. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):684-687. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141484.
APA Krog, J. S., Hansen, M. S., Holm, E., Hjulsager, C. K., Chriél, M., Pedersen, K....Larsen, L. E. (2015). Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 684-687. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141484.

High Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Spotted Fever and Scrub Typhus Bacteria in Patients with Febrile Illness, Kenya [PDF - 1.13 MB - 4 pages]
J. W. Thiga et al.

Serum samples from patients in Kenya with febrile illnesses were screened for antibodies against bacteria that cause spotted fever, typhus, and scrub typhus. Seroprevalence was 10% for spotted fever group, <1% for typhus group, and 5% for scrub typhus group. Results should help clinicians expand their list of differential diagnoses for undifferentiated fevers.

EID Thiga JW, Mutai BK, Eyako WK, Ng’ang’a Z, Jiang J, Richards AL, et al. High Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Spotted Fever and Scrub Typhus Bacteria in Patients with Febrile Illness, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):688-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141387
AMA Thiga JW, Mutai BK, Eyako WK, et al. High Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Spotted Fever and Scrub Typhus Bacteria in Patients with Febrile Illness, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):688-691. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141387.
APA Thiga, J. W., Mutai, B. K., Eyako, W. K., Ng’ang’a, Z., Jiang, J., Richards, A. L....Waitumbi, J. N. (2015). High Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Spotted Fever and Scrub Typhus Bacteria in Patients with Febrile Illness, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 688-691. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141387.

Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies, Israel, 2009–2010 [PDF - 317 KB - 3 pages]
O. Mor et al.

We investigated prevalence of hepatitis E virus in a sample of the population of Israel. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to the virus was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4%–13.0%); age-adjusted prevalence was 7.6%. Seropositivity was associated with age, Arab ethnicity, low socioeconomic status, and birth in Africa, Asia, or the former Soviet Union.

EID Mor O, Bassal R, Michaeli M, Wax M, Ram D, Cohen-Ezra O, et al. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies, Israel, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):692-694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.140245
AMA Mor O, Bassal R, Michaeli M, et al. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies, Israel, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):692-694. doi:10.3201/eid2104.140245.
APA Mor, O., Bassal, R., Michaeli, M., Wax, M., Ram, D., Cohen-Ezra, O....Shohat, T. (2015). Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies, Israel, 2009–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 692-694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.140245.

Outbreak of Severe Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus Infection, Southeastern Brazil [PDF - 683 KB - 4 pages]
J. Abrahão et al.

In 2010, a vaccinia virus isolate caused an atypically severe outbreak that affected humans and cattle in Brazil. Of 26 rural workers affected, 12 were hospitalized. Our data raise questions about the risk factors related to the increasing number and severity of vaccinia virus infections.

EID Abrahão J, Campos R, Trindade G, Guimarães da Fonseca F, Ferreira P, Lima M. Outbreak of Severe Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus Infection, Southeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):695-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.140351
AMA Abrahão J, Campos R, Trindade G, et al. Outbreak of Severe Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus Infection, Southeastern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):695-698. doi:10.3201/eid2104.140351.
APA Abrahão, J., Campos, R., Trindade, G., Guimarães da Fonseca, F., Ferreira, P., & Lima, M. (2015). Outbreak of Severe Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus Infection, Southeastern Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 695-698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.140351.

Lack of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission from Infected Camels [PDF - 1.58 MB - 3 pages]
M. G. Hemida et al.

To determine risk for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus transmission from camels to humans, we tested serum from 191 persons with various levels of exposure to an infected dromedary herd. We found no serologic evidence of human infection, suggesting that zoonotic transmission of this virus from dromedaries is rare.

EID Hemida MG, Al-Naeem A, Perera R, Chin A, Poon L, Peiris M. Lack of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission from Infected Camels. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):699-701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141949
AMA Hemida MG, Al-Naeem A, Perera R, et al. Lack of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission from Infected Camels. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):699-701. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141949.
APA Hemida, M. G., Al-Naeem, A., Perera, R., Chin, A., Poon, L., & Peiris, M. (2015). Lack of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission from Infected Camels. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 699-701. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141949.

Safety of Recombinant VSV–Ebola Virus Vaccine Vector in Pigs [PDF - 562 KB - 3 pages]
E. de Wit et al.

The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in fast-track development of vaccine candidates. We tested a vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein for safety in pigs. Inoculation did not cause disease and vaccine virus shedding was minimal, which indicated that the vaccine virus does not pose a risk of dissemination in pigs.

EID de Wit E, Marzi A, Bushmaker T, Brining D, Scott D, Richt JA, et al. Safety of Recombinant VSV–Ebola Virus Vaccine Vector in Pigs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):702-704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.142012
AMA de Wit E, Marzi A, Bushmaker T, et al. Safety of Recombinant VSV–Ebola Virus Vaccine Vector in Pigs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):702-704. doi:10.3201/eid2104.142012.
APA de Wit, E., Marzi, A., Bushmaker, T., Brining, D., Scott, D., Richt, J. A....Feldmann, H. (2015). Safety of Recombinant VSV–Ebola Virus Vaccine Vector in Pigs. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 702-704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.142012.
Letters

Enterovirus A71 Subgenotype B5, France, 2013 [PDF - 318 KB - 3 pages]
A. Mirand et al.
EID Mirand A, Molet L, Hassel C, Peigue-Lafeuille H, Rozenberg F, Bailly J, et al. Enterovirus A71 Subgenotype B5, France, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):707-709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141093
AMA Mirand A, Molet L, Hassel C, et al. Enterovirus A71 Subgenotype B5, France, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):707-709. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141093.
APA Mirand, A., Molet, L., Hassel, C., Peigue-Lafeuille, H., Rozenberg, F., Bailly, J....Henquell, C. (2015). Enterovirus A71 Subgenotype B5, France, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 707-709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141093.

Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Antibodies in Close Contacts of Infected Persons, China, 2013–2014 [PDF - 297 KB - 3 pages]
M. Ma et al.
EID Ma M, Ma G, Yang X, Chen S, Gray GC, Zhao T, et al. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Antibodies in Close Contacts of Infected Persons, China, 2013–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):709-711. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141442
AMA Ma M, Ma G, Yang X, et al. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Antibodies in Close Contacts of Infected Persons, China, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):709-711. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141442.
APA Ma, M., Ma, G., Yang, X., Chen, S., Gray, G. C., Zhao, T....Cao, W. (2015). Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Antibodies in Close Contacts of Infected Persons, China, 2013–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 709-711. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141442.

Hepatitis E Epidemic, Biratnagar, Nepal, 2014 [PDF - 668 KB - 3 pages]
A. Shrestha et al.
EID Shrestha A, Lama TK, Karki S, Sigdel DR, Rai U, Rauniyar SK, et al. Hepatitis E Epidemic, Biratnagar, Nepal, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):711-713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141512
AMA Shrestha A, Lama TK, Karki S, et al. Hepatitis E Epidemic, Biratnagar, Nepal, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):711-713. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141512.
APA Shrestha, A., Lama, T. K., Karki, S., Sigdel, D. R., Rai, U., Rauniyar, S. K....Mishiro, S. (2015). Hepatitis E Epidemic, Biratnagar, Nepal, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 711-713. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141512.

Human Parvovirus 4 Infection among Mothers and Children in South Africa [PDF - 352 KB - 3 pages]
P. C. Matthews et al.
EID Matthews PC, Sharp CP, Malik A, Gregory WF, Adland E, Jooste P, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 Infection among Mothers and Children in South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):713-715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141545
AMA Matthews PC, Sharp CP, Malik A, et al. Human Parvovirus 4 Infection among Mothers and Children in South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):713-715. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141545.
APA Matthews, P. C., Sharp, C. P., Malik, A., Gregory, W. F., Adland, E., Jooste, P....Klenerman, P. (2015). Human Parvovirus 4 Infection among Mothers and Children in South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 713-715. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141545.

Co-infection with Avian (H7N9) and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Viruses, China [PDF - 1.32 MB - 4 pages]
W. Zhang et al.
EID Zhang W, Zhu D, Tian D, Xu L, Zhu Z, Teng Z, et al. Co-infection with Avian (H7N9) and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Viruses, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):715-718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141560
AMA Zhang W, Zhu D, Tian D, et al. Co-infection with Avian (H7N9) and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Viruses, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):715-718. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141560.
APA Zhang, W., Zhu, D., Tian, D., Xu, L., Zhu, Z., Teng, Z....Hu, Y. (2015). Co-infection with Avian (H7N9) and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Viruses, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 715-718. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141560.

Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus RNA in Ixodid Ticks, China, 2013 [PDF - 683 KB - 3 pages]
S. Gong et al.
EID Gong S, He B, Wang Z, Shang L, Wei F, Liu Q, et al. Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus RNA in Ixodid Ticks, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):718-720. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141602
AMA Gong S, He B, Wang Z, et al. Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus RNA in Ixodid Ticks, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):718-720. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141602.
APA Gong, S., He, B., Wang, Z., Shang, L., Wei, F., Liu, Q....Tu, C. (2015). Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus RNA in Ixodid Ticks, China, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 718-720. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141602.

Avian Influenza A(H10N7) Virus–Associated Mass Deaths among Harbor Seals [PDF - 2.04 MB - 3 pages]
R. Bodewes et al.
EID Bodewes R, Bestebroer TM, van der Vries E, Verhagen JH, Herfst S, Koopmans M, et al. Avian Influenza A(H10N7) Virus–Associated Mass Deaths among Harbor Seals. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):720-722. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141675
AMA Bodewes R, Bestebroer TM, van der Vries E, et al. Avian Influenza A(H10N7) Virus–Associated Mass Deaths among Harbor Seals. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):720-722. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141675.
APA Bodewes, R., Bestebroer, T. M., van der Vries, E., Verhagen, J. H., Herfst, S., Koopmans, M....Osterhaus, A. (2015). Avian Influenza A(H10N7) Virus–Associated Mass Deaths among Harbor Seals. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 720-722. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141675.

Zika Virus Infection, Philippines, 2012 [PDF - 323 KB - 4 pages]
M. Alera et al.
EID Alera M, Hermann L, Tac-An IA, Klungthong C, Rutvisuttinunt W, Manasatienkij W, et al. Zika Virus Infection, Philippines, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):722-724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141707
AMA Alera M, Hermann L, Tac-An IA, et al. Zika Virus Infection, Philippines, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):722-724. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141707.
APA Alera, M., Hermann, L., Tac-An, I. A., Klungthong, C., Rutvisuttinunt, W., Manasatienkij, W....Yoon, I. (2015). Zika Virus Infection, Philippines, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 722-724. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141707.

Chikungunya Outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014 [PDF - 342 KB - 3 pages]
M. Aubry et al.
EID Aubry M, Teissier A, Roche C, Richard V, Yan A, Zisou K, et al. Chikungunya Outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):724-726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141741
AMA Aubry M, Teissier A, Roche C, et al. Chikungunya Outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):724-726. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141741.
APA Aubry, M., Teissier, A., Roche, C., Richard, V., Yan, A., Zisou, K....Musso, D. (2015). Chikungunya Outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 724-726. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141741.

Influenza A and B Viruses but Not MERS-CoV in Hajj Pilgrims, Austria, 2014 [PDF - 281 KB - 2 pages]
J. H. Aberle et al.
EID Aberle JH, Popow-Kraupp T, Kreidl P, Laferl H, Heinz FX, Aberle SW. Influenza A and B Viruses but Not MERS-CoV in Hajj Pilgrims, Austria, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):726-727. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141745
AMA Aberle JH, Popow-Kraupp T, Kreidl P, et al. Influenza A and B Viruses but Not MERS-CoV in Hajj Pilgrims, Austria, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):726-727. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141745.
APA Aberle, J. H., Popow-Kraupp, T., Kreidl, P., Laferl, H., Heinz, F. X., & Aberle, S. W. (2015). Influenza A and B Viruses but Not MERS-CoV in Hajj Pilgrims, Austria, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 726-727. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141745.

Enterovirus D68 Infection, Chile, Spring 2014 [PDF - 273 KB - 2 pages]
J. P. Torres et al.
EID Torres JP, Farfan MJ, Izquierdo G, Piemonte P, Henriquez J, O’Ryan ML. Enterovirus D68 Infection, Chile, Spring 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):728-729. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141766
AMA Torres JP, Farfan MJ, Izquierdo G, et al. Enterovirus D68 Infection, Chile, Spring 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):728-729. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141766.
APA Torres, J. P., Farfan, M. J., Izquierdo, G., Piemonte, P., Henriquez, J., & O’Ryan, M. L. (2015). Enterovirus D68 Infection, Chile, Spring 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 728-729. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141766.

Bat Coronavirus in Brazil Related to Appalachian Ridge and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses [PDF - 269 KB - 3 pages]
P. Simas et al.
EID Simas P, Barnabé A, Durães-Carvalho R, Neto D, Caserta L, Artacho L, et al. Bat Coronavirus in Brazil Related to Appalachian Ridge and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):729-731. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141783
AMA Simas P, Barnabé A, Durães-Carvalho R, et al. Bat Coronavirus in Brazil Related to Appalachian Ridge and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):729-731. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141783.
APA Simas, P., Barnabé, A., Durães-Carvalho, R., Neto, D., Caserta, L., Artacho, L....Arns, C. (2015). Bat Coronavirus in Brazil Related to Appalachian Ridge and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 729-731. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141783.

Tandem Repeat Insertion in African Swine Fever Virus, Russia, 2012 [PDF - 483 KB - 2 pages]
K. V. Goller et al.
EID Goller KV, Malogolovkin A, Katorkin S, Kolbasov D, Titov I, Höper D, et al. Tandem Repeat Insertion in African Swine Fever Virus, Russia, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):731-732. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141792
AMA Goller KV, Malogolovkin A, Katorkin S, et al. Tandem Repeat Insertion in African Swine Fever Virus, Russia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):731-732. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141792.
APA Goller, K. V., Malogolovkin, A., Katorkin, S., Kolbasov, D., Titov, I., Höper, D....Blome, S. (2015). Tandem Repeat Insertion in African Swine Fever Virus, Russia, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 731-732. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141792.

Norovirus GII.21 in Children with Diarrhea, Bhutan [PDF - 957 KB - 3 pages]
T. Yahiro et al.
EID Yahiro T, Wangchuk S, Wada T, Dorji C, Matsumoto T, Mynak M, et al. Norovirus GII.21 in Children with Diarrhea, Bhutan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):732-734. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141856
AMA Yahiro T, Wangchuk S, Wada T, et al. Norovirus GII.21 in Children with Diarrhea, Bhutan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):732-734. doi:10.3201/eid2104.141856.
APA Yahiro, T., Wangchuk, S., Wada, T., Dorji, C., Matsumoto, T., Mynak, M....Ahmed, K. (2015). Norovirus GII.21 in Children with Diarrhea, Bhutan. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 732-734. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141856.
Another Dimension

Lives of a Cell: 40 Years Later, A Third Interpretation [PDF - 888 KB - 2 pages]
V. M. Dato
EID Dato VM. Lives of a Cell: 40 Years Later, A Third Interpretation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):705-706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.110793
AMA Dato VM. Lives of a Cell: 40 Years Later, A Third Interpretation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):705-706. doi:10.3201/eid2104.110793.
APA Dato, V. M. (2015). Lives of a Cell: 40 Years Later, A Third Interpretation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 705-706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.110793.
Books and Media

Australia’s War against Rabbits: The Story of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease [PDF - 759 KB - 1 page]
P. Effler
EID Effler P. Australia’s War against Rabbits: The Story of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):735. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.142009
AMA Effler P. Australia’s War against Rabbits: The Story of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):735. doi:10.3201/eid2104.142009.
APA Effler, P. (2015). Australia’s War against Rabbits: The Story of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 735. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.142009.
About the Cover

“Welcome to the World of the Plastic Beach” [PDF - 1.75 MB - 2 pages]
B. Breedlove
EID Breedlove B. “Welcome to the World of the Plastic Beach”. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):736-737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.ac2104
AMA Breedlove B. “Welcome to the World of the Plastic Beach”. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):736-737. doi:10.3201/eid2104.ac2104.
APA Breedlove, B. (2015). “Welcome to the World of the Plastic Beach”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 736-737. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.ac2104.
Etymologia

Etymologia: Varicella Zoster Virus [PDF - 313 KB - 1 page]
EID Etymologia: Varicella Zoster Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(4):698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.et2104
AMA Etymologia: Varicella Zoster Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(4):698. doi:10.3201/eid2104.et2104.
APA (2015). Etymologia: Varicella Zoster Virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(4), 698. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.et2104.
Online Reports

Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity [PDF - 1.13 MB - 7 pages]
C. C. Machalaba et al.

Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health–administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008–2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community.

Page created: July 22, 2015
Page updated: July 22, 2015
Page reviewed: July 22, 2015
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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